Forgotten Eritrean Heroes who resisted Italian rule

Reflections on the Eritrean people struggle during the Italian rule: 1887-1941

Researched and compiled by Resoum Kidane

Most of the young generation have sufficient knowledge of the history of armed struggle against the Ethiopian occupation which was launched by Awate on 1st September 1961, but not of those patriotic heroes who resisted the Italian rule. Although Eritrea was for 60 years under Italian colonization there are few publications on the crime committed against Eritrean people during the Italian rule comparing to the number covering the Libyan people's experience. When Italian occupied Libya in 1911, theLibyan people resisted the invasionto which the Italian responed by systematically killing over three days thousands of women and children [youtube]

By comparison to other African countries’ knowledge of their colonial past, Eritrean people< and particularly the young generations know relatively little of Italian colonization in Eritrea. This might be because most publications during armed struggle and after liberation focused on the history of the armed struggle, political struggle in the 1940s or border conflitics 1998-2000, on the leadershiprivalry among the oppostion groups, and on PFDJ crimes against the Eritrean people.

The history of the Eritrean people's resistance against foreign occupation goes back before Eritrea was colonized by Italy in 1887.  Bereketeab 2000, Killon 1991, Pateman 1990 and Paice 1994 briefly mention the resistance against the Abyssianan and Egyption  by Ras Woldenkeal in 1878 and  Kentebai Hamid respectively. Unlike the Libyans, the Eritrean people allowed the Italian colonization without a fight[video], this was because of Ras Alula atrocities committed against the idigenous people between 1879 and 1889 such as the genocide of the Kunama people . also mentionS briefly the crimes comitted against the Kunama and other ethinc by Ras Alula in following words: in 1886 Ras Alula (the army general of King Yohannes IV of Tigray) had ruthlessly and in cold blood massacred about two-thirds (67%) of the Baria and Kunama population of Eritrea. He killed most of the people, looted every item his soldiers could get and took all the cattle of the region. For an account on this one should read Alberto Pollera's "I Baria e I Cunama" (1913) pp. 50-52. Haggai Erlich's, "Ras Alula" pp.101-102 has also a description of what Alula did and why he did it. Furthermore In 1876, Alula, Yohannes’s trusted lieutenant, replaced Araya. Alula burned Bahta Hagos’s house and those of his relatives and confiscated their cattle and other property. Bahta and his brothers made a permanent camp at Agameda. There, the brothers added to their stock of firearms and ammunitions by waylaying the escorts of Araya and Alula who happened to pass by from time to time. Like the other Eritrean tribal leaders, Degiat Bahta Hagos was in constant conflict with the Ethiopian invading forces. He evaded the Tigrean Rases’ repeated attempts to capture him and allied himself with the Egyptian garrison in Keren.

As a result of the above, the Italian occupation was accepted by some Eritrean possibly because it was a change from the Abyssian rulers foisted upon them periodically. People from higland, Habab, Mensa, Mary, Baria, Kunama, Bogos, Saho people of the lowland collaborated to the new Italian rulers to escape from the atrocities at the hands of Ethiopian rulers. One of those who collaborated was Baranbaras kafl. He defeated Basha Gebermariam, Alula's consul in Keren, however on 2nd June, 1889 when majority of kafl’s troops were out of Keren for another invasion, the Italians occupied Keren and Kafl was captured and taken as a prisoner to Asseb, and he died there.

After the Eritrean people recognizing the real motive behind the initial Italian rulers, they began to demonstrate their opposition against the Italian colonial rule resulting in the killing and imprisons of Eritreans. For example Bahta Segeneti was killed in a battle against the Italian Colonial Army on December 19, 1894.

Bahata claimed that "The Italian curse us, seize our land, I want to free you let us drive the Italian out, and be our own masters". The rebellion lasted only three days and Bahata was killed his body left unburied. His brother fled to join Ras Mengesha in Tigra. In the first year of the Italian colonization between August 1889 and December 1890 the Italian killed about dozen chiefs together with some 800 of their followers, source excerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea. As mentioned earlier Baranbaras kafl was taken Nakura as a prisoner for opposing the Italian rule and died in Nakura.

In this 54th year of commemoration of the armed struggle launched for independece by Awate, this compilation provides a snap shot of the Eritrean people's resistance  against Italian rule, to recall those heroes who gave their lives in resisting the Italian rule. It is worthwhile to acknowledge Memher Fedil for researching and publishing the resistance on his facebook, the history of the Eritrean people struggle against Italian, Winta for highlighting the resistence of the Eritrean people in her publicationTarik Hzbi Eritrea , Emnetu for taking the intiative of researching and compiling biography of Eritrean heroes to remember which is available free from his website, Semera for making available history of the Nakura prision on YouTube and Aida Kidane in 2001 a list of political prisoners who imprisoned at the Nakura prison . Aida in her publication describes the Nakura prison in the following words:

"I was not allowed to visit the prison, but another visitor saw it and explained how horrible it was. There are rooms underground, in this scorching heat and long nails protruding on both sides of the tiny wall that the prisoner could not rest on either side. There were numerous chains too.:

General Tancredi Saletta Commandant of Massaw in 1883 decided to establish a detention camp at the Island of Nakura. The island of Nakura was chosen for its extreme climate 50 degree centigrate heat and 90 percent humidity. In 1992 there were thousands of prisoners incarcerate, the detainee were forced to drink salt water. Ration for prisoners in 1938 was 300 gramms flour, 10 gramms tea and 20 gramms of dugar. This ration was not guaranted every day. Eugenio Finzi of the military marine who visited the place described it as follows. The detainees covered with sores and insects died slowly of hunger suffering rickets and others diseases without medical care, thin and filthy the majorty have lost the use of their legs were living in terrable situtation. Source [ History of Nakura prison 1887-1941 video clip]

The Escape from Nakura Prison

Nakura is remembered by Eritreans not only for its being an infamous prison where so many Eritrean heroes were condemned to suffer but also by some gallant nationals like Osman Bure who successfully escaped from prison to safety [readmore]

In the year 1899, there were around 119 prisoners in Nakura with 27 guards and two Italian commanders, some of those prisoners escape to Tigray. Here is a brief information about these detainees who escaped from the of Naquru prison. In the month of November 12 prisoners with six guards were sent to bring water from the nearby well, four of the  prisoners separated from the rest of the group, when they reached one isolated place they killed one of the guards and took the weapon of the other one. Later they took the other guards' weapons and broke into the prison and freed 107 Eritrean prisoners and took the prisoners, the  captured six guards and one

Italian commander to Bure. One of the Eritrean men who orchestrated the escape fr on Nakura was Ali Mohammed Osman Buri, and Afara by ethnicity used to live along the coasta l area before his imprisonment. After the break from the prison Osman Buri  was known as “ Sebar Nakura”, literally meaning the 'breaker of Nakura'.Others Eritrean notables who escaped included Degyat Mahray and Blata Gebregezabher Gilay of Tseazzga [source excerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea]Translated by Winta Weldeyesus

Degyat Mahray

Degayt Mahray escaped from Nakura together with Ali Mohammed Osman Bura. Just as Degyat Abera andMohammed Nuri and Degyat Mahray also left to Tigray and start staging attacks against the Italians from Tigray. In 1906, Degyat Mahray was captured by Degyat Gebreselassie of Tigray and was taken toShoa, where he died there [sourceexcerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea]Translated by Winta Weldeyesus

Abubeker Ahmed and Mohammed Nuri

Abubeker Ahmed and Mohammed Nuri The people of Saho were also known for their oppositionto any colonizer and bravery. They had defeated Raas  Araia and Raas Alula but due to the repeated attempts by the Tigrayan rulers to colonize the people of Saho. But  when the attempts of these rulers intensified the people of Saho were compelled to accept Italian rule, thinking  that it would the lesser of two evils. But they soon began to stage opposition against the Italians. Abubeker Ahmed and Mohammed Nuri were some of the well-known opposition leaders from among the people of Saho.In 1901 Abubeker, together with 20 of his followers confronted 200 Italians troops and killed two and injured four of the soldiers. But Abubeker's wife was captured during this confrontation while he escaped to Adelarabe region  and began inciting people to stand against the colonizers. The Italians tried to persuade and threaten the people of Saho to fight against Abubeker, which only made the people’s support of Abubeker grow stronger. Abubeker  continued to oppose the Italians and they made various attempts to capture him, which all failed, even Italy’s  newspapers began writing articles about his opposition and he died in one of his fights with the Italians.  Another Saho hero was Mohammed Nuri. He was one of those who broke out from the Nakura prison. After his  escape he was living in Tigray and was attacking Italia n commanders from Tigray jointly with Gebremedhin, the son of Degyat Bahta Hagos. While many Eritrean heroes were orga nizing against Italians from Tigray, Italy made an agreement with King Menelik to deport all Eritrean opposition leaders from Tigray. Consequently, Degayt Gebreselasie of Tigray
imprisoned Mohammed Nuri from which he ecaped with five of his followers and settled in Gundet. Following this  nothing is known about the life of his Eritrean hero, though he is always remembered as one of the brave men that  opposed the Italian colonization [sourceexcerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea] Translated by Winta Weldeyesus

Baranbaras kafl
When Emperor Yohannes was killed by the Mahadists in March 1889, Menelik was crowned as the King of Shoa. While rulers were changing in Ethiopia, the Italians in Eritrea were expanding their occupation and in July 26, 1888 they occupied Keren, with the help of Baranbaras Kafl. Flanked by 2000 of his troops sporting 600 guns provided by the Italians, the Baranbaras defeated Basha Gebermariam, Alula's consul in Keren. But after he conquered Keren, he began working against the Italians and undertook the administration of Keren on his own. He went on to invade other areas in the region, a move which made the Italians angry and as a result they declare war against him. On 2ndJune, 1889 when majority of kafl’s troops were out of Keren for another invasion, the Italians occupied Keren and Kafl was captured and taken as a prisoner to Asseb, and he died there. source excerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea]Translated by Winta Weldeyesus
Baranbaras kafl, and Degyat Mesfun

Baranbaras kafl, and Degyat Mesfun, the son of Raas Weldemicheal were imprisoned, soon after which they both died.Degyat Tesma Immam was taken to Italy as a prisoner where he lost his sanity, and Degyat Hadgenbes Gelwet of Adi Tekelezan was killed in a prison in Masswa.Kentiba Hailu of Tseazzeg a was killed in Asmara and his son Tedela was killed in Genda'e and other legendary leaders like the son of Baranbaras Kafl and Baranbaras Yelma were killed brutally. Many others were imprisoned and killed in Asseb and Nakura, including Ali Mohammed Osman Buru, Degyat Mahraye, Mohammed Nuri. The people that accepted the Italians to escape from the crimes of Ethiopian rulers and Mahdists began facing worse oppression from the Italians colonizers. As a result of the Italians' brutality, various popular mutinieserupted in different parts of the country. Although there exists no detailed record of these oppositions, the following are a brief part of the history of the Eritrean revolt against Italian colonizers[source excerpts from Tarik Hzbi Eritrea]

ኣብቲ ፈለማ ጣልያን ን ኤርትራ ምስ ተቖጻጸርዋ ዝጸሓፉዎ ጽሑፍ
"ጥንቲ ኤርትራ ነዛ ጣልያን ዝሓዝናያ መሬትን ኣውራጃ ተኽኣ (ከሰላ) ሱዋኪን ጠቕሊላ ዝሓዘት ሰፋሕ ሃገር ነበረት። እቲ በቢኣውራጃኡ ኣብዛ ሃገር ዝርከብ ኢደ ጥበባት ናይ ስልጣኔ ኣሰርን፡ ናይ'ዛ ሃገር ዝሓለፈ ዕብየት ይምስክረልና። ብጊዜ መንግስቲ ኣኽሱም(ቅድሚ ኣኽሱም ንኑቢያ ምውራር ማለት እዪ) ከይተረፈ ነጻ ሓያል መንግስቲ ነበረት። ድሕሪ ውድቀት ክሳን ንሕና ንሕዛ ኣእሚኑ ዘገበራ ሓይሊ የልቦን። ኣብ ዳሕረዋይ ዘመናት ግን ብወራር መሳፍንቲ ኢትዮጵያ ስለዝደኸመት ብቐሊል ክንሕዛ ከኣልና፡ ማለት በቲ ምስ መሳፍንቲ ኢትዮጵያ ዝነበሮ ጽል ኢ ምኽንያት ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ብሰላም ክቕበለና ተገደደ፡ ስለዚ ኢትዮጵያ ብዝገበረትልና ሓገዛ ንንእዳ" ይብል
ጣልያን ንመሬት ኤርትራ ካብ 1887 ክሳብ 1888 ዓም ኣብ ውሽጢ ክልተ ዓመት ብምሉኡ ሓዝዎ። ብ 1890 ዓም ኤርትራ ብዝብል ሽም ኣሕቢሮም ግ ዝ ኣቶም ከም ዝኾነት ኣወጁ። ጸጥታ ስለዘኽበሩ ከኣ ህዝቢ ነቲ ካብ ብዙሕ ዘመናት ዝናፍቖ ዝነበር ናይ ሰላም ንፋስ ከተንፍስ ከኣለ። ብወራር መሳፍንቲ ኢትዮጵያ ሰቡን ጥሪቱን ዘጥፍ ኤ ሓፋሽ ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ናብ ጣልያን እናተዓስከረ ኣንጻር ኢትይዮጵያ ተዋገአ። ሃገራውያን ከም በዓል ልጅ ኣበራን ከንቲባ ማሕሙድን ቤት ኣስገደን ናብታብን በላምበራስ ካፈል በዓል ሰራየ ንኣንጻር ጣልያን ተዋግኡ። ህዝቢ ስለዘይሰዓቦን ግን ተሳዓሩ።
መጽሓፍ ዛንታ ኤርትራ
1985 ዝተዳለወ መጽሓፍ ደራሲ ፊተ ሚካኤል ሓሳማ ራካ ኣብ 1987 ኣብ ኢጣልያ ዓሪፎም
ገጽ 119-120 59, Ferdinando Martini RELAZIONE COLONIA ERITREA Vol. III p. 1564

Source facebook Mekonen tesfai

Forgotten Eritrean Heroes who resisted Italian rule
ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ደጊያት ጉርጃ
ደጊያት ጉርጃ ወዲ ናብልሽ ኣብ ወረዳ ዛይደከሎም ኣውራጃ ሰራየ ተወሊዶም ዝዓበዩ ኣብ ከባቢ ዓደብኦም በዓል ቆጽሊ ወይ ከኣ ሹም ኣሕዋት ኮይኖም ኤርትራዊ ግቡኦም ዝፈጽሙ ዝነበሩ ኢዮም። ብዘይካ`ዚ ከኣ ከብቲ ዘአንስሱ(ዘራብሑ) ዓቢይን ቅኑዕን ጓሳ ኣብ ርእሲ ምንባሮም ብሕርሻ ዝማዕበሉ በዓል ጸጋ ነበሩ።
ጣልያን ኣትዩ መግዛእታዊ ምምሕዳር ምስ ጀመረ ግን ብዝነበሮም ፍቕሪ ሃገርን ናይ ተፈጥሮ ንቕሓትን ቆራጽነትን ተባራቲዖም ኣብ በረኻታት ኤርትራ ብፍላይ ከኣ ኣብ ዛይደከሎምን ደምበላስን ከባቢ መረብን ገማግም ዓንሰባን እናሰፈሩ ሃገራዊ ሓርበን`ነት ይፍጽሙ ስለ ዝነበሩ ጉርጃ ወዲ ናብለ ሸፈቱ። ተባሂሉ ብባዕዳዊ መግዛእታዊ ምምሕዳር ኢጣልያ ተመዝገበሎም።
በዚ መሰረት`ዚ ድማ መግዛእታዊ ምምሕዳር ኢጣልያ ነተን ዘራፍ ዳዕሮ ራህዋ እተባህላ ኣሓኦም ኣብ ከተማ ኣውጺኡ ብሓራጅ ሽጠን። ኣብ ገዝኦም ንዝረክቦ ሃብቲ ከኣ ከም መጠን ሰለባ ማለት ምርኮ ሓሲቡ ገቢቱ ኣጥፍኦ። ኣብ መወዳእታ ድማ ብዝነበሮም ዓቕሚ እናተቓለሱ ከለዉ ብባንዳታት ጣልያን ተታሒዞም ተማረኹ። ኣብ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ማለት ናብ ደሴት ናኹራ ተወሲዶም ከኣ ተኣስሩ። ደጊያት ጉርጃ ወዲ ናብልሽ ዳማ ዝብል ቅጽል ስም ሳጓ እውን ነበሮም። ደጊያት ጉርጃ ወዲ ድልዱል ብርክን ገፈሕ እንግዳዓን ዝነበሮም ብርቱዕን ምሉእ ሰብኣይን ነበሩ። ስለ`ዚ ከኣ ኣብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ኣትዮም ምስ ተሓበሱ ኣዋልድ ሃገሮም ንጅግንነቶም እናዘከራ በዚ ዝስዕብ ግጥሚ ይንእድኦም ነበራ።
ዳማ ሰሉመ
ዳማ ሰሉመ
ወዲ ናብልሽ
ኣይግዛእን በለ
ዳማ ስሉመ
ዳማ ስሉመ
ናኹራ ወሪድካ ሕጂኽ እንታይ ትሓልመ
ጉርጃየ ጉርጃ
ኣበይ ድኣ ኔርካ
በዓል ዘራፍ ኪሕረጃ
ኣበይ ድኣ ኔርካ በዓል ዘራፋ ክሒረጃ ማለት ከኣ ከብትኻ ብሓራጅ ክሽየጣ ከለዋ ማለት ኢዩ።
ደጊያት ጉርጃ ወዲ ናብልሽ ብፍላይ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኣሓኦም ከብቶም ብዝነበሮም ፍቕሪ እተፈልጡ ኩባ እተሓጽቡ ሕያዋይ ጓሳ ነበሩ። ኩባ ማለት ብጸባ እተሓጽቡ ሃብታም ዘበሉ ማለት ኢዩ። [ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook :excerpts from History of Eritrean People]


ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ
ደጊያት ምራጭ በዓል ጉንደት ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ደጊያት ምራጭ በዓል ጉንደት

ደጊያት ምራጭ እተባህሉ ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛ ኮይኖም ኣብ በረኻታት ሃገሮም ዱር እናጠሓሱ ኣራዊት እናቐተሉ ጸላኢ ዝዓጽዱ ዝነበሩ ጅግናን መዳርን ክኢላ ተዛራብን ነበሩ።
ደጊያት ምራጭ ኣብ ጊዜ መግዛእቲ ኢጣልያ ሓደ ዕለት ምስ ባንዳታት ተራኺቦም ውግእ ገጠሙ`ሞ በታ ዕለት እቲኣ ጥራይ ሸውዓተ ባንዳታት ቀቲሎም ብዙሕ ብረትን ጥይትን ካልእ ስንቅን መንዚዖም ሰለቡ። ኣብ መንጎ`ዚ ካልእ ሓድሽ ሓይሊ ጸላኢ ንሓገዝ ካብ ከተማ መጺኡ ኣብቲ ውግእ ስለ እተጸምበረ ሓይሊ ጸላኢ በርቲዑ እቲ ውግእ ብዝያዳ ጻዕጽዐ`ሞ ንሓርበኛታት ብጾቶም ከዝልቑ ኣዚዞም ምስ ውሑዳት ብጾቶም ትራይ ተሪፎም ነቲ ውግእ ቀጸልዎ። ብብዝሒ ሰራዊት ውግእን ባንዳታትን ተኸቢቦም ኣብ ርእሲ ምውግኦምሲ ምስ ሾውዓተ ካልኦት ብጾቶም ተማረኹ። ምስ ኩሎም ብጾቶም ንቤት ማሕቡስ ደሴት ናኹራ ተሰዲዶም ተዋሒጦም ከይተመልሱ ዝተረፉ ኢዮም። ስለ`ዚ ከኣ ኣዋልድ ሰራዬ።

ምራጭ በዓል ጋዳ
ምራጭ በዓል ጋዳ
ተማሊእዎም ከደ
ሸውዓቲኦም ባንዳ
ከም ወድአን
ወዲኡና ነይሩ
ሓንቲ ኣትሪፉዋ
ኣብ ዝናሩ እናበላ ንዓሰርታት ዓመታት ብደርፈ ነኣድኦምን ዘከርኦምን።

ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People Community

ድግለል ዓሊ ኣልሕሴን ኣሕመድ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ድግለል ዓሊ ኣልሕሴን ኣሕመድ

ሓደ ካብ`ቶም ኣብ`ዚ ናይ ፈለማ ዓመታት መግዛእቲ ጣልያን ኣብ ኤርትራ ዝተላዕሉ ፍሉጣት ተቓወምቲ ናይ ድግለል ኣዓሊ ኣልሕሴንን ነበረ።

ተቓውሞ ዓሊ ኣልሕሴን ግን ኣብ መወዳእታኡ ከም ኵሉ ናይ`ቲ እዋን`ቲ ንጹልን ሰፈሕ ውዳቤ ዘይነበሮን ተቓውሞታት ክቕጽልን ክዕወትን ዝኽእል ኣይነበረን።

ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook :excerpts from History of Eritrean People Community

Zemat Wedi Ekud

One of the legendary fighters of the Beni Amer was Zemat Wedi Ekud, who used to reign over the upper part of Barka before the coming of the Italians to the region. Due to his continuous confrontation with the rulers of Tigray, he was famous and respected among his people. Although many in the region had accepted the Italians to escape from the crimes of the Tigrayrulers, Zemat Wedi Ekud didn’t.
After several attempts the Italians begun to understand that they can’t capture Zemat Wedi Ekud as a result they sent one of his relatives, when he went out of his place unarmed and unprepared to receive his relative, they captured him and sent him to the prison in Nakura where
he died. [SOURCEexcerpts from

Bulgeyan Dember Iygan
Another heroes in Barka who scarified their lives for their land and people like Bulgeyan Dember Iygan who were from Nara ethnic group.The opposition against the Italians was active in many parts of the country and the Italians were imprisoning anyone suspected to be member of the opposition movement. Nakura being an isolated island in the Red Sea with an extremely hot climate, it was difficult for anyone survive there for more than six month [sourceexcerpts from
Degyat Abera Hail

Another legendary opposition movement leader was Degyat Abera Hailu, born in 1840 in Tseazegga from his father Kentiba Hailu. In 1891, realizing that the Italians were after them, Degyat Abera and his followers left their hometown and staged a guerrilla movement. Later the Italians became aware that he had abandoned his hometown and sent 100 soldiers headed by Captain Batinito capture Degayt Abera. In March 1892, Degyat Abera Hailu confronted the troops of captain Batinii and defeated them at the battle of Walta Medhanit where the captain was killed. The Italians retaliated by killing and looting the residents of the Degayt’shometown. As the crimes continued, Degayt and his followers moved to Tigray to continue their opposition In 1896 Degayt Abera asked help from King Menelik of central Ethiopia and joined im in the battle of Adwa, were Italy was defeated by Menelik. Following this defeat, Italy signed an infamous treaty with King Menelik, in which the Shoan King agreed to deport Eritrean oppositions residing in Tigray. As a result, Degayt Abera was banned from engaging in any rebellious actions and was later was taken to Shoa, where he later diedexcerpts from

ደጃዝማት መስፍን ወዲ ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ኵነታት ሓይሊ ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል ስለዘስገኦም ህጹጽ ስጉምቲ ናይ ምሳድ ንራእሲ ባይሩኡ ገብረጻድቕ ዝተባህሉ ናይ ዓድዋ ኣመሓዳሪ ዝነበሩ ንመረብ ምላሽ ንኽወሩ ኣሺሓት ሰራዊት እኽቲቶም ሰድድዎም። ራእሲ ባይሩኡ ንሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ወኪሎም ብወርሒ ግንቦት 1878 ዓ.ም.ፈ ካብ ዓድዋ ነቒሎም፡ ኣሽሓት ሰራዊት ኣኽቲቶም፡ ዚኣክል ብረትን ጥይትን ሰኒቖም፡ ንራእሲ ወለደሚካኤል ክድምስሱ ድሉዉ ሰራዊት ሒዞም መረብ ምላሽ ተሳጊሮም ኣብ ኣስመራ ቤት መኻእ ጸጸራት ጎቦ እንዳ ቕዱስ ሚካኤል ዓረዱ፡ ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል (ጐሚዳ) ካብ ሓልሓል ሰራዊቶም ኣኽቲቶም ብወገን ምብራቕ ኣስመራ ብሰላሕታ መጺኦም ብ20ግንቦት 1878ዓ.ም.ፈ ኣብ ቤት መኻእ ውግእ ገጠሙ። መዓት መቕዘፍትን መቝሰልትን ህድማን ዘኸተለ ውግእ ድማ ተፈጸመ፡ ኣብቲ ውግእ ራእሲ ባይሩኡ ተቐትሉ።

ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል፡ ንራእሲ ባይሩኡ ገብረጻድቕን፡ ኣይተ ገብረስላሴን ዝተባህሉ ብዓል ጻዕዳ-ክርስትያን ብወግዒ ክቕበሩ ኣዘዙ። ጸኒሖም ግን ራእሲ ባይሩኡ ንደጃዝማች ወልደስላሴ ወዲ ኣይተ ዓንደሚካኤል በዓል ኮርባርያ፡ ኣብ ሓደ ኵናት ሲዒሮሞስ፡ ወዲ ተመርጻ ሓውተይ ምዃኑ ምስ ተነገሩ ከይትቐብርዎ ኢሎም ብወኻሩን ኣዛብእን ኣብሊዖ`ሞ ኢዮም እሞ ንራእሲ ባይሩኡ ገብረጻድቕ ከይትቐብርዎም፡ ወኻሩ ይጻወታሎም። ንኻልኦት ግን ብግቡእ ቅበርዎም ኢሎም ኣዘዙ። እንተዀነ ግን ደጃዝማች መስፍን ወዲ ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል ፍርሃት እግዚኣብሄር ዚሓዶሮም ብሊሕን ፍትሐኛን ከም ምንባሮም መጠን ብለይቲ ካብ ኣቦም ተሓቢኦም ነቲ ካብ ዚብእን ወኻሩን ዝተረፈ ኣዕጽምቲ ራእሲ ባይሩኡ ኣኻኺቦም ክርስትያናዊ ስኔ ስርዓት ኣማሊኦም ቀበርዎም።

ደጃዝማች መስፍን ብወርሒ ሰነ 1889 ናብ ጣልያን ተወሲዶም ኣብኡ ካኣ ብመግዛእቲ ኢጣልያ ተቐትሉ።

ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People

እመቤት ኢለኒ(ዋዕሮ ኣምበሳ) ሰራዊት መሪሓ ዝፋን ንግስነት ወዳ ዘዉሓሰት፡ሓያልን ተባዕን ጅግና ኣደ ራእሲ ወልደንኪኤል ሶሎሞን(ጎሚዳ) ንጉስ #ምድረ_ሓማሴን_ምድረ_ባሕሪ_መረብ_ምላሽ
ኣብ ከባቢ 1837-38 ዓ/ም፡ ከንቲባ ሰሎሞን ብዓል ሃዘጋ ኣብቲ እዋን’ቲ ኣሪጉን ብሕማም ተጠቒዑን፡ ክልተ-መንእሰያት ኣወዳት ነበርዎ። ወልደሚካኤል ወድ 15 ዓመት፡ መርእድ ድማ ወድ 14 ዓመት ዝኸውን ዕድመኦም። ብድሕሪ ሞቱ፡ መልክዕ ኰነ-ትሕዝቶ ናይ ዝነበሮ ስልጣን ብምሉኡ፡ ናብቲ ተጻራሪኡ እንዳ-ጸዓዘጋ ከም ዝምለስ፡ ኣይዘንግዖን።more ስለ’ዚ ዓርኩ-ኣማኒኡ ንዝዀነ “ወልደጋብር” እተባህለ ከንቲባ“ድምበዛን” ጸዊዑ፡ ስድራኡ ኣማሕጸኖ። ብዘይካ’ዚ፡ ደቁ ዓብዮም ክጥቀምሎም ኣብ ዝበጽሕሉ እዋን ከረክቦም ንማለት፡ 40 ጠበንጃ ንሓደራ ከጽናሓሉ ተላበዎ (ኣብቲ እዋን’ቲ፡ ኣብ ዓድ-ሓበሻ 40 ጠበንጃ ማለት፡ ምልክት ሃብቲ-ሓይሊ-ስልጣን- እዩ ዝነበረ)። ክልተ-ወርሒ ብድሕር’ዚ፡ ከንቲባ-ሰሎሞን ዓረፈ። read more

ዘማት ወድ እኩድ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ቅድሚ ምምጻእ ጣልያን፡ ዘማት ረብዓት ጣሊታት ዝብሃሉ ጥርኑፍት መንእሰያት ብምምራሕ ንኸባቢኡ ካብ ወራራትን ዝምታን ማህዳውያንን መሳፍንቲ ትግራይን ይከላኸለሉ ስለዝነበረ፡ ብጅግንነቱን መኸተኡን ብህዝቢ ፍቱዉ ነበረ። በዚ ኸኣ ድግለል ኣልሕሴንን ናብታባትን ብህቡብነት ዘማት ይሰግኡን ይጠማመቱዎን ከም ዝነበሩ ይዝንቶ።

ድሕሪ ምምጻእ ጣልያን፡ ዘማት ንመግዛእቲ ጣልያን ረድዩ ኣይተቐበሎን። ኣብ ከባቢታት ላዕላይ ባርካ ከኣ ንባንዳታት ጣልያን የጥቅዕ ነበረ። ዘማት ኣብ ርእዚ ህቡብ ተዋጋኣይ፡ ክኢላ ገጣማይ`ውን ስለዝነበረ፡ ኣብ ልዕሊ መግዛእቲ ጣልያን ዝነበሮ ተቓውሞ ዝገልጹ ኣካል ኣፋዊ ስነ/ጽሑፍ ኮይኖም ዝርከቡ ሓያሎ ግጥምታት ሓዲጉ`ዩ። ሓደ ካብ ግጥምታቱ ከም`ዚ ይብል።

መን ውላድ መን ቶም ለምን ቁርበት መጽኡና
እተ ምድር ኣብዕብነ እግብር ግብኦ ልብሊና
ወምና ማል`ላ ሓለልና ጥልበት ድፋዖ ትጸብጠና
ሰብ ሕና ከምሰሌሆም ሰኒ ልኣምሩና
እዴና-ማ ዋይዳይት ዝብጥ እግለ ቀቡና
ዉላድ ጋና ቶም ህቶም ኢወርሱና ጥልበት፡ ሕና ኢይንደፍዖም፡
ህቶም ምንዲ ኢደፍዑና!

መን ደቂ መን እዮም፡ እዞም ካብ ስግር ዝመጹና
ኣብ መሬት ኣቦታትና በራዩ ኩኑ ዝብሉና
ካብ`ቲ ማል ሓላልና ግብሪ ዘኽፍሉና
ሰብ እካ ኢና ከምኣቶም፡ ጽቡቅ ጌሮም ይፍለጡና
ኢድና እውን ዓጸፋ እያ እትመልስ ትንዕ ንዝብለና
መዓንጣና ሕጹብ እዩ ነቶም ዝንዕቁና ጓና እዮም
ንሶም ፍጹም ነይወርሱና ግብሪ፡ ንሕና ኣይንኸፍሎምን ንሳቶም

ተቓውሞ ዘማት ግን፡ ኣብ መወዳእታኡ ከም ኵሉ ናይ`ቲ እዋን`ቲ ንጹልን ሰፈሕ ውዳቤ ዘይነበሮን ተቓውሞታት ክቕጽልን ክዕወትን ዝኽእል ኣይነበረን። ድግለል ኣልሕሴን ሓደ ዘማት ዝኣምኖ ዘመዱን ዓርኹን ብምቕራብ ኣብ ምትሓስ ዘማት ምስ ኢጣልያውያን ተሓባበረ። እቲ ወዲ እሱል ዝብሃል ንዘማት ዘትሓዞ ቀረባ ዘመዱ፡ ዘማት በይኑ እንተ ተትሓዘ`ዶ ይሓይሽ`ዚ ምልእቲ ቀቢላ ብጣልያን እንተ ጠፍአት? ኢሎም ደግለልን ሰዓብቱን ምስ ኣጽበብሉ ኣብ ምትሓዝ ዘማት ከም ዝተሓባባረ ይዝንቶ። በዚ ከኣ ዘማት ወድ እኩድ ብጣልያን ተመቝሑ ናብ ናኹራ ንጥፍኣቱ ተወስደ።ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People Community

ብላታ ገብረ እግዚአብሔር ጊላይ ጻዕዳ ክርስትያን
ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ካፒታኖ ሙዘትቲ ንዓድዋ ከይዱ ኪፍጽሞ እተመዘዞ ዕዮ ፈጺሙ ንኣስመራ ተመሊሱ ጸብጻብ መገሽኡ ከቕርብ ከሎ ገብረእዚአብሔር ኣብ ዓድዋ ኪፍጽሞ እተዋሃበ ስራሕ ኣይፈጸመን። እብ ቃሕ ዝበሎ እናኸደ ምስ ሰበስልታን ኢትዮጵያ ከም ልቡ ይዘራረብ ነይሩ። እዚ ጥራይ ከይአክል ከኣ ምስ ቤተ ክህነትን ዘይእሙናት ዓበይቲ ሰባትን ኣብ ጸልማት ኮይኑ ኪዝትን ኪእንገድን ከአንግድን ይርኤ ነይሩ ብማለት ኣቕሪበ።

ካብ`ዚ ዕለት`ዚ ጀሚሩ ጣልያን ኣብ ልዕሊ ብላታ ገብረእግዚኣብሔር ጊላይ ጠርጠራ ኣሕደረ። ሰለይትን ወቀርትን እናሰዓቡዎም ከለዉ ገብረእግዜኣብሔር ምስ በዓል መን ከም ዝኾኑ፡ ከም ከመይ ዝበለ ፖሎቲካዊ ኣረአእያ ከም ዘሎዎ ይፈለጥ ዚብል ስቱር መምርሒ ተመሓላለፈ።
በዚ ከም`ዚ ዝበለ ምኽንያት ከኣ ንመእሰሪ ዝኽውን ምኽንያት ግዛእቲ ኢጣልያ ኣቐርቡ።

1.ኣብ ውግእ ዓድዋ ኣስተርጋሚ ኮይኑ ምስ ወዓለ ምስ መራሕቲ ኢትዮጵያ ብምስጢ ተራኺቡ ሰነዳት ስለ ዘመሓላለፈ።
2.ምስ ፈታውራሪ ኣባታቦር ፍሉጥ ናይ ሓጸይ ምነሊክ ዓቀይታይ ብምስጢር ስለ ተራኽበ ኢሎም ኣመሓላለፉ እሞ።

ንወዲ ጊላይ ናብ ናዅራ ወስዶም ኣሰሩዎም። በቲ ብላታ ገብረ እግዚአብሔር ጊላይ ኣብ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ደሴት ናኵራ ዝአተወሉ ጊዜ ካብ ሰለስተ ሚእቲ ዝበዝሑ እሱራት ፖሎቲካ ከም ዝነበሩ እቶም ንሕና ዘርከብናሎም በቲ ጊዜ`ቲ ብህይወት ዝነበሩ ኤርትራውያን ዘረጋግጽዎ ሓቂ ኢዩ።
ብዙሓት ካብ`ዞም እሱራት እዚኣቶም ብሕማምን ጥሜት ካልእ ስቓይን ኣብ`ቲ ቤት ማእሰርቲ ሞይቶም ዝተረፉ ክህልዉ ከለዉ፤ ካልኦት ብዙሓት ከኣ ብጥበብ ብዓል ብላታ ገብረእግዚአብሔር ወዲ ጊላይን ዕስማን ቡሪን ደግያት ማሕራይን ምስ ብጾቶምን ካብ ማእሰርቲ ናዅራ ሰቢሮም ዝወጽኡ ነበሩ።
ዝኾነ ኮይኑ ብላታ ገብረ እግዚኣብሔር ጊላይ ምስ መብዛሕትኦም እቶም እሱራት ናኹራ ምስ ወጽኡ ድሕሪ ክንደይ ድኻምን ጽምእን ደንከል ሰንጢቆም ዓድዋ

አትዮም ምስቶም ሽዑ አማሐዳሪ ዝነበሩ ራእሲ መኮነን እተባህሉ አቦ ሃጽይ ሃይለስላሴ ተራኺቦም ተላለዩ፡ ብዝነበሮም ፍልጠትን ብልሕን ከአ ብራእሲ መኮነን ተፈታዊ ኮይኖም ተረኸቡ። ቀጺሎም ካኣ ምስ ራእሲ መኮነን ሐቢሮም ንሽዋ ማለት ንአዲስ አበባ ከዱ። ብላታ ገብረ እግዚአብሔር ጊላይ ዝደረስዎም መጻሕፍቲ ተበለጽቲ ከም እተበለጹሎም ርኡይ ኪኸውን ከሎ፤ ብፍላይ (አእምሮ)
እተባህለ ቀዳማይ ጋዜጣ ኢትዮጵያ መስሪቶም ብኢዶም እናጻሐፉ ኣብ ቀጽሪ ቤት መንግስቲ ሃጸይ ሚሊክ ይዝርግሑ ነበሩ።

እንተኾነ ግን ብቕንእን ካልእ ሻርነትን እተላዕሉ ጸላእቲ ከበብዎም። ሐንሳእ ሃይማኖት ዘይብሎም ኮተሊኽ ኢዩ። ሐንሳእ ከአ ከም ጸረ መንግስቲ ኢትዮጵያ እናአቕረቡ ከምርርዎም ስለ ዝጀመሩ፡ ዝርድኦም ሰብ እናወሓደ ከደ በብቕሩብ ከአ ስደት እናኸበዶም ብስጭት ከኣ እናገዘኦም ከደ`ሞ እቲ ዝዘርእዎ ዝነበሩ ፍርያም ዘርኢ ኣብ ከውሒ ከም እተዘርኤ እናበነነ ኣሳቐዮም።

ብላታ ገብረእግዚአብሔር ሓያሎ መጻሕፍቲ ዝደረሱ ደራስን ጋዜተጤኛን ከም ዝነበሩ`ውን ብድሕሪኦም እተረቡ ጽሑፍቶምን ድርሰታቶምን ይምስክሩሎም። ብላታ ገብረ እግዚአብሔር ጊላይ ብ1888 ብ1889ዓ.ም. ሓደ ጋዜጣ ኣስመራ እተባህለ ጋዜጣ ፈጢሮም፡ ብኢዶም እናጻሓፉ ይዝርግሑ ነበሩ። ጋዜጣ ኣስመራ እቲ ቀዳማይ ብቋንቋ ሃገር፡ ብወዲ ሃገር እናተጻሕፈ እተዘርግሔ ጋዜጣ ኢዩ።

ብላታ ገብረ እግዜአብሔር ኣብ ክንዲ ስሞም ዘዘውትሩዎም ናይ ብርዒ ስም እውን ነይሮዎም ኣብ`ቲ ጽሑፋቶም ከኣ ብላታ ገብረእግዜአብሔር ጊላይ መፍቀሬ ሃገሩ ሓማሴናይ እናበሉ ይፍርሙ ነበሩ።

ብላታ ገብረእግዚኣብሔር ምስ ዓረፉ፤ ድሕሪ ነዊሕ እዋን መርድእ ሞቶም ኣብ ዓዶም ጻዕዳ-ክርስትያን በጽሔ እሞ ካልኣይ ቀብሪ ተጌሩ መጐበር ኣብ ጐልጐል ወሪዱ ህዝቢ ምስ ተኣከበ ሓደ ኣልቃሳይ፤

ወዲ ጊላይ ወዲ መርከብ ዓባይ
ወዲ ጊላይ ወዲ መርከብ ዓባይ
ወዲ ገብረክርስቶስ ወዲ መርከብ ዓባይ
ወዲ ተሽም ወዲ መርከብ ዓባይ
ጅነራል ዝፈረዶም ናባኻ ይብሉ ይግናይ
ኮሎኔል ዝፈረዶም ናባኻ ይብሉ ይግባይ
ኵሉ ድኣ ይውዕሎ ባይቶ ኣደባባይ እቲ
ገሊኡ ኣብ ጭላጦ ምጽባይ
እቲ ገሊኡ ኣብ ቁርሲ ምጽባይ
ወዲ ጠፈኡኩም ደቈትሽም ህዝባይ
ይኣኸለኒ ድኣ ወዲኤ ዘረባይ።

ኢሉ ኣልቀሰሎም። እቲ ኣልቃሳይ ብላታ ገብረእግዚኣብሔር ጸላእ መንግስቲ ኢጣልያ ምዃኖም እናፈለጠ፤ ኣብ ጥሕቲ መግዛእታዊ እናነበረ ከሎ ብድፍረት ስለ ዘልቀ ሰሎም ከኣ ህዝቢ ብትብዓቱ ኣመስገኖ ይብሃል። ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People Community

ደጃዝማት ንጉሰ ወዲ ደግያት ገረ-ጻድቕ ዓረዛ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ደጃዝማት ንጉሰ ወዲ ደግያት ገረ-ጻድቕ ዓረዛ
ደጃዝማችንጉሰ ዓረዛ ኮይኑ ዓዶም ሰብኣይ ጓል ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል ሰሎሞን (ጎሚዳ) ዝነበሩ ኢዮም። ደጃዝማች ንጉሰ ንጓል ራእሲ ወልደሚካኤል ምስ ተመርዓው፤ ሽዑን ሽዑን እሙን ሰዓቢ ጐሚዳ ብምዃን፤ ኣንጻር እቶም ብኮሎኔል ኣረንድሩፐ እተመርሑ ሰራዊት ውግእ ግብጺ ወገን ጎሚዳ ኮይኖም ኣብ ውግእ ጐዳጕዲ ተኻኣፈሎም ጅግንነት ኣርኣዩ። ደጃዝማት ንጉሰ ጎሚዳ ብጥልመት ኪእሰሩ ከለዉ፤ ምስኦም ኢዮም እትኣስሩ። እንተኾነ ግን ጐሚዳ ንእምባ ሰላማ ኪስደዱ ከለዉ፤ ንሶም ግን ኣብ ዓዲ ተኽላይ ስለ እተኣሰሩ፡ ን ሹዱሽተ ኣዋርሕ ዝኣክል`ውን ብኣሉላ ተገረፉን ተገፍዑን። ብድሕሪኡ ግን ብትእዛዝ ሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ተፈቲሖም። ሽዑ ንውሑድ እዋን ኣብ ዓዶም ዓረዛ ተቐመጡ። ደጃዝማት ንጉሰ ድሕሪ ማእሰርቲ ሓሙኦም ራእሲ ወልደ-ሚካኤል ብፍላይ ኣብ ልዕሊ ግዝኣት ራእ ሲ ኣሉላ ብሓፈሻ ድማ ብግፍዕን ብድዐን ድርጎኛታት ብዝሓደሮም ቅርሕንትን ጽልእን ሃገራዊ ኒሕን ተደፍፈኦም ምስ ሓርበኛ ደጃዝማት ክፍለ እየሱስ በረኻ ኣትዮም ኣንጻር ሰለስተ ግዝእቲ ማለት።
1.ኣንጻር ግዝኣት ሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ራብዓይ፡ ከምኡ`ውን ብፍሉይ ቅርሕንቲ ጸረ
ራእሲ ኣሉላ ኣንግዳን።
2.ኣንጻር ምምሕዳር ባዕዳዊ ግዝኣት ቱርኪ
3.ኣንጻር ኢጣልያዊ መግዛእቲ ኣብ ኤርትራ ሸፍቶም ዕሉል ሓርበኛ ኮኑ።
ድሕሪ ነዊሕ ቃልሲ ገን ኢጣልያውያን ኣብ ድሮ ምእዋጅ ግዝኣቶም ንብዙሓት ደቀባት ሹማምንቲ ኣሲሩ። ማእሰርቲ ጥራሕ ዘይኮነ ከኣ ሰፈሕ ናይ መቕተልትን ራዕድን ዘመተ`ውን ኣካይዱ እሞ። ደጃዝማት ንጉሰ ድማ ግዳይ ማእሰርቲ ገዛእቲ ኢጣልይ ገበሩዋ ኣሞ ብ1889 ናብ ቤት ማሕቡስ ዓሰብ ተወስዶም ንሞቶም ተወስዱ።
ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን።[
Source facrbook excerpts from:History of Eritrean People Community

ደጅዝማት ባህታ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ
ካልኣይ ቀብሪ ደጅዝማት ባህታ ኪፍጸም መጎበር ኣብ ሜዳ ምስ ተዘርግሔ ሓደ ኣይተ ገብረሚካኤል እተባህሉ መልቀሲ በዓል ሰገነይቲ

ወዲ ሓጎስ ወዲ ጻድዋ መኒዓ መኒዓ
ወዲ ዓንዱ መኒዓ መኒዓ
ኣንስቲ ኣከለጉዛይ እስኪ ንብዓ
ኣብ ዝባን ሓላይ ስሬኽን ጠፈኣ
ኣብ ዝባን ሓላይ ጉልባብክን ጠፈኣ
ኣብ ዝባን ሓላይ ክብረትክን ጠፈኣ
እሞ ድማ ኣይተዋዓዋዓ
ኣንስቲ ጸዓዱ ከይሰምዓ
ዝበልኩኽን መኒዓ መኒዓ
ኣየርን ባሩድን ምስ ተሰዃዅዓ
ግንባሩ ሂቡ ዘይህብ እንግድዓ
ሓወየ ሓወየ ሓወየ ሓወየ
ከም እትመውትሲ ፈሊጠ ሽዓ
ኢሎም ኣልቀሱ ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People

ደጃዝማች ባህታ ሓጎስ ኣባ ጥመር
ንልጅ እምባየ ኣራያ ቀተልዎ

ልጅ እምባየ ወዲ ራእሲ ኣርኣያ ወዲ ሓዎም ንሃጸይ ዮሃንስ ዝኾኑ ካብ ኣውራጃ ተምቤን ዚውለድ ወዲ ትግራይ ኢዩ። ንሱ ጌና ጎበዝ ትሕቲ 20 ዓመት ከለዎ ኪደ ንምድረ መረብ ሚላሽ ብሽመይ ነታ ብሃጸይ ዮሃንስ እተፈቅደትለይ ግዝኣተይ ኣውራጃ ኣከለጉዛይ ግብሪ ኣኽፍላ ተባሂሉ ብኣቦኡ ተወኪሉ ዝመጽኤ ኢዩ።

እንተኾነ ግን ልጅ እምባየ ሽሕ እኳ ፈተውራሪ ዚብል ሹመት እተዋህቦ ወዲ መሳፍንቲ እንተ ነበረ ብጠባዩ ግን ዘይእሩም ስለ ዝነበረ፤ ዘየምጽኦ ካብ ሕጊ ዝወጽኤ ዘይእሩም ተግባራትን ብዕልግናን ብብድዐ ኪፍጽም ተራእየ እሞ ደጃዝማች ባህታ ጌና ኣይተ ባህታ እናተባህሉ ከልዉ፤ ስማዕ ፈተውራሪ እምባየ፡ ኣብ`ዚ ዓደይ፡ እተወለድኩሉ ሃገረይ፡ ብድዐ ኣይትፈጽም`` ብማለት ኪመክርዎ ፈተኑ። ንሱ ግን ኣይሰምዐን። በዚ ነገር`ዚ ዝተላዕለ ድማ ኣብ መንጎ ክልቲኦም ምትፍናንን ምጽሕታር ምድርን ተጀመረ እቲ ጽላኢ ከኣ እናተረረ ከደ።

ስለ`ዚ መወዳእታኡ ሓዲኦም ካብ ሰገነይቲ ሓዲኦም ከኣ ካብ ዓዲ ዳዕሮ መደልደል ንውግእ ተበጊሶም ተጋጠሙ። ኣብ`ቲ ውግእ ከኣ ፈተውራሪ እምባየ ኣርኣያ ብኵናት ተወጊኡ ሞተ።

ደጃዝማች ባህታ ሃጎስ ካብ`ታ ዕለት ኢቲኣ ጀሚርሮም ናብ`ታ እተወለዱላ ዓዶም ቀሲኖም ኪነብሩ ሰለ ዘይከኣሉ ሓደ ሓደ ጌዜ ንባሕሪ እናወረዱ መሊሶም ንሰለድ ብምኻድ እናተኽወሉ ካብኡ`ውን ንመረታ ደይቦም ካብ ቦታ ናብ ቦታ እናተዛወሩ ጸንሑ። መወዳእትኡ ግን ንመታሕት ቦታ እናተዛወሩ ዘንሑ። መወዳእትኡ ግን ንመታሕት ከይዶም ኣብ ምድሪ ሓባብ ምስ ከንቲባ ሓምድ ሓሰን እተባህሉ ሹም ኢዱ ዘርጊሑ ተቐበሎም ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from :History of Eritrean People]

ልጅ እምባየ ቅድሚ ሞቱ ዝፍጽሞ ዝነበረ ግፍዕታት

ልጅ እምባየ ቅድሚ ሞቱ ዝፍጽሞ ዝነበረ ግፍዕታት ወስ ከብል ፍቐደለይ።
ልጅ እምባየ ናብ ሓደ ዓዲ ክኣቱ ከሎ ንሰሙን ክልተ ሰሙን ይጸንሕ። ኣብ ርእስቲ ካልእ ዝእዝዞ ነገራት፡ ንነበርቲ ዝኣተዎ ዓዲ ኣብ ነፍስወከፍ ለይቲ ምስኡ እትሓድር ሰበይቲ ክቕርቡሉ ይእዝዞም ነይሩ። ደቂ ዓዲ ድማ ኣማራጺ ስለ ዘይነበሮም፡ (ሽዑ ተጋሩ ብረት ኣለዎም ደቂ ዓዲ ግን ጉራዴን ጭማራን ጥራይ’ዩ ነይሩዎም) ዕጫ ኣውዲቖም መዓልታዊ ሓንቲ ሰበይቲ ናብ መዓስከር ናይዚ ዝጥቀስ ዘሎ በዓለገ መንእሰይ ክሰዱ ይግደዱ ነይሮም። ልጅ እምባየ ካብ ዓዶም ክሳብ ዘልግስ ድማ እቲ መስርሕ ብተርታ ካብ ገዛ ናብ ገዛ ይሰጋገር ነይሩ። ብኸምዚ እታ ዕጫ ዝበጽሓ መስኪነይቲ ሰበይቲ ፈትያ ጸሊኣ ነቲ ኣነዋሪ ተግባር ክትፍጽም ነይሩዋ። በዓልቤት ናይታ ዘይተዓደለት ሰበይቲ ክገብሮ ዝኽእል ነገር ኣይነበረን። እምቢ ምስ ዝብል፡ ኣብ ልዕሊ ትእዛዝ ናይ ራእሲ እምባየ ንዕቀት ስለ ዘርኣየ ተቐፊዱ ኣብ ቅድሚ ራእሲ ይኸይድ’ሞ ራእሲ፡ “ናይ መን እኖኻ ንዕቀት’ዩ ኸምዚ ልበለ ተግባር?” ኢሉ ከም ሕሱም ይገርፎ፡ “ተጋግየ ጐይታይ! ምሓሩኒ ሰበይተይ’ውን ንሓላልኩም ውሰዱዋ” ብምባል ጥራይ ይተርፎ። ሰበይቱ ድማ ከምተን ካልኦት በቲ ጨካን መንእሰይ ትድፈር፡ ክትጠንስ’ውን ትኽእል። እቲ ኣብ ከባቢ ጽንዓደግለ ዝነበረ ህይወት ዓመት መጽአ ቀውዒ ቀውዒ ብኸምዚ ይቕጽል ከም ዝነበረ ብዙሓት ዘርከብናሎም ዓበይቲ ይዛረቡ።

ሓደ ቀውዒ እቲ ብጠባዩን ተግባራቱን እሩም ዘይነበረ ልጅ እምባየ ወዲ ራእሲ ኣርኣያ ከም ኣመሉ ኣብ ሓንቲ ዓዲ ይኣቱ’ሞ፡ እቲ ልሙድ ተግባሩ ይጅምር። ቅንይ ኢሉ እቲ ክፉእ ዕጫ ናብ ሓንቲ ኣዝየን መልክዐኛን ወረጃን ዝነበራ ስመን ዝረሳዕኩወን ሰበይቲ በጺሑ። “እሞ ሎሚ ከም ሰበይ ዕጫ በጺሑኒ ኣሎ፡” ክብላ ድማ ንበዓልቤተን ሓቢረንኦም። እቶም ሰብኣይ ብሓይሎምን ጕብዝናኦም ዝምክሑ ሰብኣይ ስለ ዝነበሩ፡ “ሬሳይ ረጊጹ ክወስደኪ እንተኾይኑ ክርእዮ እየ፡” ብምባል ክኸዳ ከም ዘይኮና ሓቢሮመን። ንሰን ግን ንሰብኣየን ኣብ ሓደጋ ከእትዋ ስለ ዘይደለያ ድሮ ሓደ ጥበብ ምሂዘን ነይረን። “ክኸይድ ኣለኒ፡” ኢለን ደረቓ። ምስጢር ናይቲ ክጥቀማሉ ዝሓሰባ ሜላ ንበዓል ቤተን ምስ ሓበርኦም ብጐቦ ልቦም ሕራይ በሉወን። ዓይኒ ከይሓዘ ከሎ ናብ እንዳ ራእሲ ኣምርሓ። ራእሲ ግን ኣብ ኣፍደገ ጸኒሑ ርእይ ምስ ኣበለን፡ “ናይ እንዳ መን ነቲሕ ነቲሕ ትጨኑ ሰብ ኣምጺእኩምለይ? ካብ ጥቓይ ኣርሕቑለይ!” ኢሉ ብምቝጣዕ ንዓሳክሩ ካብቲ ቦታ ከርሕቑወን ኣዘዞም። እተን ሕጻበን ዝሰተ ጐራሕ ሰበይቲ ናብ ራእሲ ቅድሚ ምብጋሰን ልኻይ ምስ ዕነን ካልእ ረሳሕ ነገራትን ክዳነን ኣብኡ ኣሊኸን ኣንቂጸንኦ። እቲ ፍርቁ ጥራይ ዝተሸብለለ ርእሰን ድማ በቲ ካብ ነዊሕ ግዜ ኣትሒዘን ዘዳለዎኦ ሕውስዋስ ዕነን ልኻይን ለኽየንኦ ነይረን። እቲ ብሩህ ዝነበረ ገጸን ድማ ጸሎሎ ተለኽዩ ስለ ዝነበረ ኣብ ቅድሚአን እንጌራ ክትበልዕ ዘይትኽእል ዝላላ ፍጥረት መሲለን’የን ናብ እንዳ ራእሲ ዝኣተዋ። በዝን ክንድዝን ድማ ክብረን ሓልየን ክምለሳ ክኢለን። [source facebook Stefanos Temelso]

In Eritrean historyBahta Hago is well known for his resistance against foreign invasion. Born in the mid-1800s in the town of Segeneiti, Debub region, Degiat Bahta Hagos – Aba T’mer – was killed while fighting against the Italian Colonial Army on December 19, 1894.

He was born to a wealthy family and spent his childhood herding some of the numerous cattle his father had acquired after settling in Segeneiti. Almost nothing is known about Bahta’s life during the time he spent farming his father’s land. In his early thirties, he got married to a woman from his village.

Bahta Hagos became an outlaw on the eve of the Ethio-Egyptian war of 1875-6 because of a blood feud with the family of Emperor Yohannes’s – Tigrean Emperor – specifically his uncle, Araya.

Emperor Yohannes had appointed Araya as overlord of the area. In the first week of October 1875, Araya’s 18-year-old son, Embaye, visited Segeneiti to demand money. Having milked the part of the province assigned to him, Embaye shoved aside the commander of the troops his father had appointed there, wounded a priest who tried to intervene, and killed a brother of Hagos Andu, Bahta Hagos’s father.

This provoked fury and the villagers rioted. Embaye’s men fired, but the enraged villagers allowed them no time to reload their single-shot muskets.  The villagers killed two-dozen of Embaye’s men. Half a dozen men of Segeneiti also died, including kinsmen of Bahta Hagos. Subsequently, Bahta avenged his relatives by killing the prince with a spear. He, together with two of his younger brothers – Kahsu and Sengal – and other young men, fled to another village below the escarpment.

In 1876, Alula, Yohannes’s trusted lieutenant, replaced Araya. Alula burned Bahta Hagos’s house and those of his relatives and confiscated their cattle and other property. Bahta and his brothers made a permanent camp at Agameda. There, the brothers added to their stock of firearms and ammunitions by waylaying the escorts of Araya and Alula who happened to pass by from time to time. Like the other Eritrean tribal leaders, Degiat Bahta Hagos was in constant conflict with the Ethiopian invading forces. He evaded the Tigrean Rases’ repeated attempts to capture him and allied himself with the Egyptian garrison in Keren.

In 1885, Italian colonial presence replaced the defeated Egyptians and they controlled Massawa. Degiat Bahta Hagos moved to ally himself with them and their General, Oreste Baratieri. In 1893, the Italians reserved some 19,000 hectares of land for European use. A year later, almost fifteen times that amount was set aside and the first half a dozen Italian families began arriving to settle in the Eritrean highlands.

Degiat Bahta became frustrated and could not accept the conduct of the Italian Colonial Government and their soldiers. In the evening of 14 December 1894, he began his revolt against the Italians. After gathering his people at the market, Degiat Bahta issued a call for resistance and said, “The Italians curse us, seize our land. I want to free you. Let us drive the Italians out and be our own masters.”

Following that, Degiat Bahta, with his brother Sengal and his son Ghebremedhin, cut telegraph wires north to Asmara and arrested Lieutenant Giovanni Sanguineti, a new Italian resident at Segeneiti. On hearing the news, Baratieri, who was in Keren supervising dealings with the Mahdists, telegraphed Asmara ordering major Petro Tosselli to march his battalion down to Segeneiti.

Upon arrival, the Major entered negotiations with Hagos who stalled him with excuses and promises of loyalty. The Italian reinforcements started to arrive and by the evening of December 17th, Tosselli had 1,500 men and two artillery pieces. He went to move against Hagos on the morning of December 18th, but found him gone. Hagos had secretly abandoned Segeneiti in the night and had moved his forces north against the Italian garrison of 220 men at the small fort of Halay, commandeered by Captain Castellazzi. Tosselli correctly guessed this was Hagos’ plan, and marched his men towards Halay.

Bahta Hagos called for Castellazzi to surrender and abandon the fort. Negotiations continued until the afternoon, when Hagos’ patience came to an end and the attack was ordered. Though low on ammunition, the Italians held out until late afternoon. Toselli’s forces arrived at that moment and launched an attack on Hagos’s army rear. Degiat Bahta Hagos was shot during the battle and died at Ona-keran in Halay.

Because of his influence at the time, after his death, the Italian colonial government banned his burial fearing that his grave would become a source of further rebellions. However, his body was secretly interred in a grave by his loyal friend, Soquar Bahro Digsa, in Halay and later moved to Segeneiti in 1963. Following Eritrean independence in 1991, his remains were again interred in December 2007 with full honours in recognition of his struggles.

e source.


Rebellion against the Italians

In December 1894, Bahta unilaterally led his force of 1,600 men in direct revolt against the Italians, although he claimed support of Mengesha. He captured the Italian administrator at Segeneiti, which was then the capital of the province, and declared an independent Akkele Guzay. He proclaimed himself "An avenger of rights trampled on by the Italians".[7] and also said "the Italians curse us, seize our land; I want to free you... let us drive the Italians out and be our own masters."[8] On the 15th, the telegraph wires were cut from Segeneiti to Asmara, which the Italians had occupied since 1889, in order to give himself time to mobilize the population and bring Mengesha into the conflict. Baratieri immediately suspected Mengesha and ordered Major Toselli and his battalion to move on Segeneiti.

Upon arrival, the Major entered negotiations with Bahta, who stalled him with excuses and promises of loyalty. The Italian reinforcements started to arrive and by the evening of the 17th Toselli had 1500 men and two artillery pieces. He went to move against Bahta the following morning, but found him gone. Bahta had secretly abandoned Segeneiti in the night and had moved his force north against the Italian garrison of 220 men at the small fort of Halay, commanded by Captain Castellazzi. Toselli correctly guessed this was Bahta's plan, and marched his men towards Halay.

Bahta called for Castellazzi to surrender and abandon the fort. Negotiations continued until 13:30, when Bahta's patience came to an end and the attack was ordered. Low on ammunition, the Italians held out until 16:45, when the situation became critical. Toselli's forces arrived at that moment, and launched an attack on Bahta's rear. Bahta was killed in the attack, and his forces fled, many joining Mengesha. Mengesha's army would lose at the Battle of Coatit, but Menelik would soon commit his forces, and destroy the Italians at the Battle of Adwa, ending their colonial hopes for Ethiopia.


Because of his influence, after his death his burial was banned by the Italian Colonial government.[9] They feared that his memorial would be nexus for further rebellion. His body was secretly buried at Halay, and later moved to Segeneiti in 1953. In 2007 he was interred once more in a newly constructed memorial with an honor guard in memory of his struggle. source

ጅግና ሰቛር ባሕሮ
ሰቛር ባሕሮ ኣቦኦም ነባያለው በዓል ድግሳ ኮይኖም ንትእዛዝ ጣልያን ጥሒሶም ንሬሳ ደግያት ባህታ ሓጎስ ካብቲ ዝወደቑሉ ዑና ቐራን ዝበሃል መሬት ሓላይ ኣብ ዝባኖም ተሰኪሞም ኣስታት ሓደ ኪሎሜተር ናብ ዝሔሖ ዝበሃል ቦታ ወሲዶም ሓመድ ኣዳም ዘልበሱ ጅግና’ዮም። ጣልያን ንደጊያት ባህታ ኣብ ኩናት ሓላይ ምስ ቀተሉዎም ሬስኦም ከይቅበር ካብ ሰሉስ ናብ ሰሉስ ንሓደ ሰሙን ምሉእ ኣብ ምስሓቕ ጓይላ ዝበሃል ቦታ ተሰጢሑ ክቕንን መሽሚሹ ክተርፍ’ኳ ኣዚዞም እንተነበሩ ሰቛር ባሕሮ ግን ነቲ ትእዛዝ ሸለል ኢሎም ዝወረደ ይውረደኒ እምበር ሬሳ ጎይታይ ንኣሞራ ኣይከውንን ብምባል ምስ ካላኣዮም ወዲ ሓውቦኦም በዓል ድግሳ ኣቶ ዑቕባሚካኤል ወዲ ባይሩ ናብቲ ቦታ ተሓቢኦም ብምኻድ ኣረቂ ነስኒሶም ሽንፋእ ነጺጎም ንቡር ጌሮሙሎም። ድሒሩ ጣልያን ዋላ ሰቛር ባሕሮ ከምኡ ከም ዝገበሩ እንተፈለጥዎም “ኣነ ሓለቓይ ጎይታይ ስለዝኾነ ኣነ ምስኡ በሊዐ ሰትየ’የ ንስኻውን ሓለቓይ እንተትነብር ከምኡ ምገበርኩ ኢሎም ስለዝመለሱ ናጻ ሰዲዶሞም።
ኣቶ ዕንዳይ ወዲ በኺት በዓል ኣኹሩር ኣብ ሓደ መርዓ ንሰቛር ባሕሮ ምስ ረኣዩዎም ከምዚ ኢሎም ኔሮም
ዝባን ሓላይ ኣሻዓሎ ሃዳናይ
ወዲ ባሕሮ ንኹሉ ዓማማይ
ኩሉኹም’ከ ትሓምዩ ዶ ከማይ።
ኣብ ቀብሪ ሰቛር ባሕሮ’ውን ከምዚ ዝስዕብ መልቀስ ተጌሩ ነበረ
ቀይሕ ዓይኒ ከም ኣንበሳ ሃምቶ
እቶ’ንዶ ብሃምቦኻ እቶ
ነቲ ቅርዓትካ’ኳ ክትሰናበቶ
እቶን’ዶ ጎይታ ናይ መርፋዕቶ
እቶን’ዶ ጎይታ ናይ ውሻጠ
ሓደ ሰብኣይ ይመስሎ ዘይፈለጠ
ሰቛር’ዩ ሰቛር ወዲ ባሕሮ
ዝባን ሰብኣይ ዝሃርም ከም ከበሮ
ኣሽንኳይ ሰብስ ዑፍ’ኳ ትነግሮ::


ፈርዲናንዶ ማርቲኒ ብዛዕባ ባህታ ሓጎስ ዝጸሓፎ 1891-1895
ነጋሽ አስፋሃ ሃይለ ካብ እንግሊዘኛ ናብ ትግርኛ ስለዝተርጎሞ አመስግኖ
ባህታ ሓጎስ ደጋፊ ኢጣልያ ኣብ ዝነበረሉ ብ1891 እተጻሕፈ
ናብ ሰገነይቲ ንምብጻሕ ዕላማና ነበረ። ባህታ ሓጎስ ድማ ኣብ ፍርቂ መንገዲ ተቀበለና። ብድሕሪኡ ሓዉ ምስኡ ወዱ ገረመድህን ነበሩ። ባህታ ኣብ ክፍላ ኣርባዓታት ዕድመ ነበረ። ነዊሕን ቀጢን ክትርእርዮ መታለልን ድኹምን ይመስለካ።እንተኾነ ካብ ከባቢኡ ክሳብ መረብ ዝዝርጋሕ መሬቱ ብዘይካኡ ቅኑዕ ከምዘሎ ኣይትፈልጥን ኢያ።ፈርዲናንዶ ማርቲኒ ብዛዕባ ባህታ ሓጎስ ዝጸሓፎ 1891-1891
ባህታ ሓጎስ ደጋፊ ኢጣልያ ኣብ ዝነበረሉ ብ1891 እተጻሕፈ
ናብ ሰገነይቲ ንምብጻሕ ዕላማና ነበረ። ባህታ ሓጎስ ድማ ኣብ ፍርቂ መንገዲ ተቀበለና። ብድሕሪኡ ሓዉ ምስኡ ወዱ ገረመድህን ነበሩ። ባህታ ኣብ ክፍላ ኣርባዓታት ዕድመ ነበረ። ነዊሕን ቀጢን ክትርእርዮ መታለልን ድኹምን ይመስለካ።እንተኾነ ካብ ከባቢኡ ክሳብ መረብ ዝዝርጋሕ መሬቱ ብዘይካኡ ቅኑዕ ከምዘሎ ኣይትፈልጥን ኢያ፡፡ ንሱን በዓልቲ ቤቱን ናብ ሃይማኖት ካቶሊክ ዝቐየሩ ኣመንቲ ምስልምና ነበሩ። ኣብ ከባቢኡ ዝዳረጎ ሓለቓ ኣይነበረን። ብሓንቲ ቃል ንዝኾነ ጎንጺ መዕለቢ ክህብ ብቑዕ ነበረ። ንመሓዙትን ንዓና ንኢጣልያውያንን ትሑት፣ለጋስን ውፉይን ብምንባሩ ኩሉ ሰብ የኽብሮን ንምምሕዳሩ ይቕበሎን ነበረ።ካብ መዛኑኡ ዝያዳ በሊሕ ብምንባሩ ከምኣቶም ትዕቢት ኣየርእን።ባህታ ግን ቅዱስ ኣይኮነን ንሓው ቀቲሉ።
ንሱ ካብ ቀዳሞት ስድራቤት ኣከለጉዛይ ኢዩ። ራእሲ ኣሉላ ምስ ኣጨነቐሉን ሃደኖን ምስ ኣሕዋቱ ምድሪ ሓባብ ተዓቑበ።ሓባብ ብመጓሰ ስለዝናበሩ ባህታን ብጾቱን ካብ ወረረቲ ተኸላኸልሎም።ባህታን ጉጅለኡን ዓዶም ክምለሱ ብዝተፈቕደሎም፣ሓደ ካብ ኣሕዋቱ ብዝምታ ክናበር ደልዩ ነበረ ሞ ባህታ ግን ኣብ ዓዲ ንዝተኽሎ ምምሕዳር ክሕግዞ መኸሮ። ምዕዶኡ ብዝሰምዕ ብዙሓት ፈተውቲ ከፍርዩ ከምዝኽእሉን ኣብ ቅድሚ ፈጣሪ ድማ ሓርነት ህዝቢ ክመልሱን ከምዝበቕዑን ኣረድኦ።ሓዉ ባህታ ኣይሰምዐን። ባህታ ንሓው ወይ ባዕሉ ወይ ኢዱ ንራእሲ ኣሉላ ብምሃብ ከምዝቐትሎ ኣጠንቀቖ። ሓው ኪድ ኢድካ ንኣሉላ ሃብ ብዝበሎ ድማ ባህታ ምሉእ ለይቲ ጸሎት ድሕሪ ምብጻሕ ወጋሕታ ንሓው ቀተለ።ሽዑ ተጣዕሰን ብሕማም መትኒ ተሳቐን።ብኣንጻር ኩሎም ንግዙኣቶም ብጭካነ ዝሕዙ፣ባህታ ይቕረ በሃልን ኣብ ትሕቲኡ ንዝነበሩ ከም ወላዲ ይርእይ። ንሓበሻ ብመንጽር ባህርያት ባህታ ሓጎስ ምግላጽ ኣይከኣልን።ንሱ ፍሉይ ባህርያት ነበሮ።
እዚ ንኢጣልያውያን ምስ ተዋግኦም መጋቢት 1895ተጻሕፈ።
ብዛዕባኡ ኣብ 1891 ዘስፈርክዎ ጽሑፍ ካብ ትዕዝብተይን ትዕዝብቲ ብቐረባ ዝፈልጥዎን መኮነናት ኢጣልያ ዝተሞርከሰ ነበረ። ሉድዊጅ ማርካታሊ፣ካብ ኣስመራ ኣብ ጋዜጣ ትሪቡና ብዓሰርተ ክልተ ለካቲት 1895ዝጸሓፎ ብዛዕባ ባህታ ሓጎስ ዝጠራጠር ሰብ እንተነበረ ዋላ ሓደ ኣይምኣመኖን።እንተኾነ ኣንጻርና ተላዕለ። እቲ ዝወዓሎ ሃንደበታዊ ወይ ሕነ ንምፍዳይ ኣይነበረን። ኣብ ሰገነይቲ ዝነበሩን ዘኽብርዎን ጸዓዱ ንምቕታል ነዊሕ መደብ ነይርዎ ክኸዉን ይኽእል ኢዩ። ዘዕግብ ደሞዝ ጡረታ ከፊልናዮን ብዙሕ ህያባት ገለ ካብኡ ክቡር ወፈናሉን። ቅድሚኡ ንዝነበሩ ኣቢሲንያ ዘይተዋህበ ዝለዓለ ስልጣንን ክብርን ሃብናዮ። እንተኾነ ኣንጻርና ተዋጊኡ ኣብ ሓላይ ታሕሳስ 18 ወደቐ።
ናይ ፈረንሳ ኢየሱሳውያን ኣንጻርና ክለዓል ኣተባቢዖሞ ይበሃል። ካብ ኤርትራ ስለዘባረርናዮም ተቖጢዑ ክኸውን ይኽእል። ምኽንያቱ ናብ ካቶሊክ ብኢዶም ስለ እተጠምቀ የፍቅሮም ኢዩ። ኣብ ኣኹሩር ቤተ ክርስትያን ንምህናጽ እውን ኣበርኪቱ ኢዩ። እንተኾነ፣እዚ ቀንዲን እንኮን ምልዕዓል ኢዩ ዝብል እምነት የብለይን።እታ ምሳና ዘተ በቲኹ፣ ንካፕተን ሳንጉኒ ዝኣሰረላን ሓይልታቱ ናብ ሓላይ ዘውፈረላን፣ ንሱ ናብ መላእ ኣከለጉዛይ መልእኽቲ ሰደደ።እቶም ልኡኻት ንህዝቢ፣ ካብ ቶም መሬትና ክግብቱ ካብ ስግር ባሕሪ ዝመጽኡ ሓራ ክንገብረኩም ኢና።እዚ ምንቅስቓስ ምስቲ ክረድኣና ዝመጽእ ሓይልታት ራእሲ መንገሻ እተወሃሃደ ኢዩ። ዛጊት ስጉምቲ ዘይወሰድኩ ካብ ስግር መረብ መልሲ ክጽበ ስለ ዝጸናሕኩ ኢየ በልዎም። ኣቐዲሙ ከም እተገልጸ እዚ ኣገዳሲ ነጥቢ ኢዩ። ኣብ ትሕቲ ባህታ ሓጎስ ዝነበረ መዳውብቲ ኣከለጉዛይ ዝርከብ መሬት ሰራየ፣ ኢጣልያውያን ስድራቤታት ወሲደናኦ ነበራ። ኣብ ኣከለጉዛይ ድማ 25ሀክታር መሬት ብካልኦት ኢጣልያውያን ተወሲዱ ነበረ። ንሱ ብዛዕባ ዚ ምምንዛዕ መሬት ብምቅዋም ንኢጣልያውያን ከጥቅዕ ፍቓድ ክወሃቦ ናብ ምኒልክ ሰለስተ ደብዳበ ሰደደ። ምኒልክ ካብ ኢጣልያ መልሲ ይጽበ ከምዘሎን ዓቕሊ ክገብርን ክልተ ጊዘ ሓተቶ። ምኒልክ ንባህታ ከጥቅዕ ፍቓድ ከምዝሃቦ ዝፍለጥ የልቦን። እንተኾነ 35 ሽሕ ብረት ናብ ራእሲ መንገሻ ሰደደ።

ካልኣይ ክፋል....
ደጊያት ባህታ ሓጎስ (ኣባጥመር) መን ኢዮም?
# ናይ ሰገነይቲ እምባጋሮ፡ሞት ፌታውራሪ እምባየ ኣርኣያ ከመይ ነበረ?.

(ዘንብብ ይዕምምዩ እሞ ሸውሃት ናይ ምንባብና ከፊትና ሓቢርና ነንብብ ንቐደም))

ደጊያት ባህታ ብወገን ኣቦኦም፡ወዲ ሓጎስ ሹም ዓንዱ እንካብ ገዛ እገልቶ (ሰገነይቲ)ኢዮም። ብወገን እንኦም ድማ ወዲ ወይዘሮ ውናኡ ጓል ሹም ሞሳዝጊ እንካብ ገዛ ጸሊም (ደግራ-ልብኤ)ኢዮም። ኣብ ማእከል ወለዶም ብጽቡቕ መዕበያ ተቐጺዖምን ተኾስኲሶምን ዓበዩ።
ብባህሪኦም ሓቂ ተዓሚጻ ከይትሓድር ከይደቀሱ ዝሓድሩ፡ ፈሪሃ እግዚኣብሔር ዝሓደሮም፡ብደቂ ሄዋን ዘይታለሉ፡ በዓል ሃይማኖትን ጸሎትን ነበሩ።ብሓጺር ቃል መንፈሳውነትን ጅግንነትን ኣጣሚሮም ዝሓዙ ምሉእ ዘይጒዱል ሰብኣይ ኢዮም፡እናበሉ ዝፈልጥዎምን ዘርከብሎምን የዘንትዉ።ጅግንነት ኣብ ሃገሮም፡መንፈሳዊ ብርትዐ ድማ ኣብ እምነቶም ኣጣሚሮ ስለዝኸዱ "ኣባጥመር"ተባሂሎም ይጽውዑ ኔሮም።ደጊያት ባህታ ድማ ነቲ ዝፈትውዎ ፈረሶም
"ኣባ ጥመር"ኢሎም ይጽውዕዎ ነበሩ።
ወይዘሮ ግምጃ ዓብይ ሓውቶም ጥራይ ዘይኮና ብዙሕ የፍቅርወን ስለ ዝነበሩ "ኣነ ሓው ግምጁ"ኢዮም ዝብሉ ዝነበሩ።ወይዘሮ ግምጃ ማለት ሰበይቲ ኣይተ ክፍሎም ወዲ ገረድ እንካብ ገዛ ማይ ዔላ (ሰገነይቲ) እኖ ብላታ ተድላ ኢየን።

# ናይ ሰገነይቲ እምባጋሮ፡ሞት ፌታውራሪ እምባየ ኣርኣያ።

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ፈተውራሪ ኣረይ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ

ብመጋቢት 1892 ዓ.ም.ፈ ወታሃደራዊ ግዝኣት ኢጣልያ ንልጅ ኣበራ ካሳ ከኣስሮም ደለየ እሞ፤ ገለ ነቲ ምስጢር ብብሑት ዝፈለጡ ፈተውቶም ግዛት ኢትጣልያ ኪኣስረኩም ወሲኑ ኣሎ እሞ ዚግበር ግበሩ ኢሎም ነገሩዎም። ድሕሪ`ዚ ደግያት ኣበራ ሰዓብቱ ኣኻኺቡ ከኣ ንበረኻ ወጸ። እቶም በዚ ዝሰግኡ ሰበ-ስልጣን ኢጣልያ ኣንጻር ደግያት ኣበራ ካሳ ብካፒታኖ በቲኒ ዝምራሕ 200 ወተሃደራት ኣዋፈሩ። እቶም ባንዳታትን ውሑዳት ሶልዳቶን ጣልያን ኣብ ዋልታ መድሓኒት ዝበሃል ቦታ ደቂ ሸሓይ ምስ ደግያት ኣበራን ሰዓብቶም ገጠመ። ኣብ`ዚ ግጥም`ዚ ከኣ ካቢታኖ በቲኒ ብሰዓብቲ ደግያት ኣበራ ፈተውራሪ ኣረይ ዝተባህሉ ጅግና በዓል ዓድተከሌዛን ካብ ማይቤት ኤሎስ ንካፒታኖ በትኒ ጨሚቶም ቦግ ኣቢሎም ኣውደቕዎ። ወተሃደራቱ ከኣ ተሳዒሮም ተበታተኑን ሃደሙን። እቲ ቦታ ከኣ ብስም ሞት ብቲኒ ይፍለጥ ኣሎ።ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbookexcerpts from :History of Eritrean People Community

ከንቲባ ኣረይ ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ
ከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ቁሸት፤ ዓዶም ቁሸት ከባቢ ኣስመራ ዝኮነ ኤርትራዊ ነበሩ። መስረት ቤት ሰቦም ከኣ ካብ እንዳ ገብረክርስቶስ ደቀተሽም ኢዩ። ከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ኣብ ቁሸት ተወሊዶም ዝዓበዩ ወዲ ተሽም ፍቕሪ ዓዶም ዝማረኾም ምርኡይ መዳርን መሪሕ ባይቶ ዓዶም ከም ዝነበሩ`ውን ይምስከረ ይምስከረሎም።

ከንቲባ ኣረይ ሓንቲ ጓል ኣንስተይቲ ድንግላንኣ ንሰብኣይ እተሓዝኤ ኢዩ። እቲ ሰብኣያ ድንግልንኡ ከም ዝህባ ንሳ`ውን ድንግልንአ ኢያ እተበርክተሉ፡ ዝኾነት ጓል ድንግልንአ ብዘይ መርዓ እንተ ተደፈረት ከም ሰብ ምቕታል ኢዩ ዝግመት እቲ ከምዚ ዝበለ ገበን ዚፋጽም ሰብ ከአ በዚ ኣገባብ`ዚ ኣብ ፍርዲ ቀሪቡ ኢዩ ዚፍረድ ብማለት ተቓወሙ።

እዚ ኣብ ላዕሊ እተጠቕሰ ሰባብ ሕቶ ምስ ተላዕለ መኳንንትን ዓበይትን መራሕቲ ሃይማኖትን ኤርትራ እናተኣከቡ ዘትዮሙሉ፤ ብስምምዕ ከም ተቓውሞ ክብሪ ድንግልና ኣዋልድ ኤርትራ ብቕድስና ንሰብአየን ዢዕቀብ ስለ ዝኾነ ከም ጠለ በጊዕ ንወታሃደራት ኪዕደላ ፍቓድና ኣይኮነን`ዝብል ነበረ።

ብፍላይ ከአ ከንቲባ አረይ ወልዱ ብከቢድ ሓዘን ዝዓብለሎ ኣዘራርባ`ሓንቲ ኤርትራዊት ጓል ኣንስተይቲ፤ ብክብሪ ስድራ ቤታ ተሓቲቶም ምስ ኣፍቀዱ ኢያ ብቃል ኪዳን ተቖሪና እትምርዖ እምምበር ብከም`ዚ ዝድለ ዘሎ ኣጋባብ ካብ ቤታ እይትወጽእን ኢያ። ሊዕሊ ኵሉ ከአ ኣባና ዝሙት ፍንፋን ኢዩ` ብማለት ደጋጊሞም ከረድኡ ፈተኑ።

እዚ ከም`ዚ ዝበለ ሓሳባት ተጋጻጕጹ ምስ ተዘርገሔ ኵሎም ሹማምንተን መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት ዓበይቲ ዓድን ተአኪቦም ዘተይሉ። እቶም ኣብ`ቲ ባይቶ እተረክቡ ካብ ኵሉ ኵርናዓት ኤርትራ እተዋጽኡ ብምንባሮም ከአ ንአማሓደርቲ ወታሃደራዊ ግዝኣት ኢጣልያ ከም ሕማም መንድዓት ከቢደ ጾር ኮይኑ ኣቐንዘዎም። ኣብ መወዳእታ ከአ ብስሙር ድምጺ ነቲ ሓሳብ ተሳማምዕሉ። በብዘለውዎ ብርግአት ኪምክትዎ`ውን ቃሎም ሃቡ። ስለ`ዚ ኢጣልያውያን ገዛእቲ ኣብ ዓድዋ ብውግእ ከም እተሳዕሩ፡ ኣብ ኤርትራ ከአ በዚ ከምዚ ኣብ ላዕሊ እተዘርዘረ ተሳዕሩ`ሞ ናብ ልዕሊ ከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ስጉምቲ ኪወስዱ ወሰኑ።
ገለ ሓሰውቲ ወይ ከኣ ጸላእቲ፤ ከንቲባ ኣረይ ንግደት ዝብሃል ጉልባብ ጌሩ ሰባት ኣኪቡ ኣንጸር ባንዴራ ጣልያን ውዲት ይፍሕስ ኣሎ ኢሎም ሓሰው።

እቶም ከራቢኔሪ ነዚ መስረት ዘይነበሮ ወረ ጉልባብ ጌሮም ወታሃደራት ንቁሸት ሰዲዶም ንከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ንግደት ዓዶም መዓልቲ እሲሮም ካብ ገዝኦም ብምግፋዕ ወሰድዎም።
እዋኑ መወዳእታ ወርሒ ሓምለ 1908 ዓ.ም. ከም ዝነበረ ይራጋገጽ
ከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ተረሺኖም ኣብ ባሕሪ ከም እተደርበዩ ዘጠራጥር ኣይኮነን። ከመይሲ ኣብቲ ኣብ ናኹራ እተፈጸመ ታሪኻዊ ምህዳም ኣይተዘከሩን። ከንቲባ ኣረይ ወዲ ወልዱ ንባጽዕ ኣቢሎም ቅድሚ ምብጋሶም ህዝቢ ከፋንዎም ተኣኪቡ እንከሎ፤ ነቲ ቅድሚኦም ቅድሚ ብዙሕ ዓመታት እተደርሰ ግጥሚ እናለዋወጡ፤

ኣንቲ ሰምበሊ ሰምበሊ ሰምበሊ
ምድሪ ፈረስ ኢኺ ምድሪ በቕሊ
ዓዲ ስርናይ ኢኺ ኦኣዲ እኽሊ
ምራን ኮንኪ ኣትጥቕለሊ ፈርጊ ኮንኪ
ቕርሺ ኮንኪ አይትቑጸሪ
ዑቕባይ እኳ እተሓለለ
አሻሓት ቕርሽታት እናኸፈለ
ደጊም ከይደ ደሓን ዓሊ
ምስ ዝመጽኤ ተምስሊ

ኢሎም ጨደሩ። እቲ ተአኪቡ ከፋንዎም መጺኡ ዝነበረ ህዝቢ ዓዶምን ከኣ ዓው ኢሉ እናበኽየ ኣፋነዎም ይብሃል። excerpts from History of Eritrean People Community

ታሪኽ ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል

ወተሃደራዊ ግዝእት ኢጣልያ 1891ዓ.ም. ኤርትራ ብምሓዙ ኣይዓገበን ስለ`ዚ ብ1896 ዓ.ም. ብዙሕ ሰራዊት ኣኽቲቱ ንኢትዮጵያ ወረራ እሞ ኣብ ዓድዋ ከቢድ ውግእ ገሩ ከብቅዕ ተሳዒሩ መረብ ተሳጊሩ ኣብ ግዛአቱ ኤርትራ ተዓጊቱ ተረፈ።
ወተሃደራዊ ግዛአት ኢጣልያ ድሕሪ ውግእ ዓድዋ ኣብ እታ ንጉስ መነሊክ ዝመረቅሉ ግዛኣአቱ እተፈልየ ጨካንን ፈላላይን ጠባያት ምርኣይ ጥራይ ዘይኮነስ ኣብ ልዕሊ ህዝቢ ምድሪ ባሕሪ ንዕቀት ከርኢ ውን ጀመረ። ስለ`ዚ ድሕሪ ውግእ ዓድዋ ሰራዊት ውግእ ኢጣልያን ግዛአቱ ንምስፋሕ ተዋፈረ ነታ ኣብ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ በቲ እዋን በናዲር ተባሂላ እትፍለት ዝነበረት ሃገር ሶማልያ ንምውራር ብዙሕ ሰራዊት ውግእ ኣድለዮ`ሞ ብኢጣልያ ዝእዘዝ ኣፍሪቃዊ ሰራዊት ኪሰርዕ መደበ። ስለ`ዚ ከኣ ካብ ነፍሲ ወከፍ ስድራ ቤት ምድሪ ባሕሪ ምሩጻት ኣባጽሕ ተመሪጾም ብግድን ብውድን ከምዝስለፍ ተነግረ። ቅጺሎም እቶም ካብ ኢጣልያ ዝመጹኡ ወታሃደራት ኣንስቲ ስኢኖም ይሳቐዩ ስለ ዘለዉ ከኣ ካብ ነፍሲ ወከፍ ስድራ ቤትሓንቲ ጓል ኣዘዙ።
ነዚ ወረ`ዚ ዝሰምዑ ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል ብሓሳብን ጓህን ተሓዋዊሱ ብርቱዕ ጸቕጢ ፈጢሩሎም፡ ምብላዕ ምስታይ ስኢኖም ብወጥሪ ተሳቀዩ። ከም`ዚ ከኣ በሉ እቲ ኣውራ ዘሕዝን ከኣ ናይ ወዲ ተባዕታይሲ ከም-ሻሙ ከም እዋናዊ ጸገም ተራእዩ ሸለል ኪብሃል ምተኻእለ። እቲ ኣዝዩ ዘሕዝንን ዘይክኣልንሲ ናይ`ተን ደቂ ኣንስትዮ ኢዩ`` በሉ። እዚ ኣብ ላዕሊ እተጠቕሰ ሰባብ ሕቶ ምስ ተላዕለ ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል መራሕቲ ሃይማኖትን መኳንንትን ዓበይትን እናኣከቡ ዘትዮሙሉ፤ ብስምምዕ ኸኣ ተቓውሞ ክብሪ ድንግልና ኣዋልድና ብቕድስና ንሰብአየን ዝዕቀብ ስለ ዝኾነ ከም ጠለ በጊዕ ንወታሃደራትኢጣልያ ኪዕደላ ፍቓድና ኣይኮነን`ዝብል ነበረ።
ሓንቲ ጓል ኣንስተይቲ ድንግላንኣ ንሰብኣይ እተሓዝኤ ኢዩ። እቲ ሰብኣያ ድንግልንኡ ከም ዝህባ ንሳ`ውን ድንግልንአ ኢያ እተበርክተሉ፡ ዝኾነት ጓል ድንግልንአ ብዘይ መርዓ እንተ ደፈረት ከም ሰብ ምቕታል ኢዩ ዝግመት እቲ ከምዚ ዝበለ ገበን ዚፋጽም ሰብ ከአ በዚ ኣገባብ`ዚ ኣብ ፍርዲ ቀሪቡ ኢዩ ዚፍረድ ብማለት ተቓወሙ።
ብፍላይ ከአ እባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል ብከቢድ ሓዘን ዝዓብለሎ ኣዘራርባ`ሓንቲ ኣጋአዚት ጓል ኣንስተይቲ፤ ብክብሪ ስድራ ቤታ ተሓቲቶም ምስ ኣፍቀዱ ኢያ ብቃል ኪዳን ተቖሪና እትምርዖ እምምበር ብከም`ዚ ዝድለ ዘሎ ኣጋባብ ካብ ቤታ እይትወጽእን ኢያ። ሊዕሊ ኵሉ ከአ ኣባና ዝሙት ፍንፋን ኢዩ` ብማለት ደጋጊሞም ንህዝቢ ኣረድኡ።

እዚ ከም`ዚ ዝበለ ሓሳባት ተጋጻጕጹ ምስ ተዘርገሔ ኵሎም መራሕቲ ሃይማኖትን ሹማምንተን ዓበይቲ ዓድን ተአኪቦም ዘተይሉ። እቶም ኣብ`ቲ ባይቶ እተረክቡ ካብ ኵሉ ኵርናዓት ምድሪ ባሕሪ እተዋጽኡ ብምንባሮም ከአ ንአማሓደርቲ ወታሃደራዊ ግዝኣት ኢጣልያ ከም ሕማም መንድዓት ከቢደ ጾር ኮይኑ ኣቐንዘዎም።
እሞ ኣብ ልዕሊ ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል ኸኣ ወረ ጉልባብ ጌሮም ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል ምስ`ቶም ስግር መረብ ትግራይ ኣትዮም ጸረ - ባንዴራ እጣልያ ሸፊቶም ዝነበሩ ብዙሓት ደቂ ምድሪ ባሕሪ እናተጸሓሐፈ መልእኽቲ እናሰደደ ውዲት ይፍሕስ ኣሎ ኢሎም ብምጉልባብ ስጊምቲ ኪወስዱ ወሰኑ።
ብ 1901.04.08 ዓ.ም. ድማ ከም`ዚ ኢሎም ንእንዳ ማርያም ኣስመራ ወታሃደራት ኢጣልያ ከራቢኔሪ ሰዲዶም ካብ ቤት ክርስቲያን ብሓይሊ ኣውጺእም ብግፋዕ ኣሲሮም ንዓሰብ ወሲዶም ከኣ ረሸኖም።
ነዚ ወቐሳ`ዚ ወይ ክሲ`ዚ ማጆር ሩፈሎ ፐሪኒ ኣብ መዘክራቱ ብጽሑፍ መስከሩዎ ኣሎ።
ኣዘንተውቲ ኣፈ/ታሪኽ ኣባ ወልደ ሳሙኤል ትውልዶም ካብ ማይ ቤት ዓደሞ ኣስመራ ጎዳይፍ ካብ ደቂ ኣቤቶ ሓርቦይ ኢዮም ይብሉ። source መምህር ፈደል መኮነን ከተማ

ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ
ኤርትራዊ እምቢታ ጸረ ብድዐታት ገዛእቲ ረሲደንተ ሙላዛኒ በነደቶ ኣርቱሮ ኣብ ዓዲ ዃላ ኮፍ ኢሉ ጭብጥታት ዘሎዎ ሰለላታት ኪእክብ ከሎ። ኣብ`ቲ ዓመታት`ቲ ሓያሎ ተቓውሞታት ምንባሩ ዘማትእ ኣይመስልን። እቲ ዝርካቡ ሓበሬታታት፡ ካብ ወግዊ ምንጭታት ከይተረፈ ከኣ፡ ኣብ`ቲ ዓመታት`ቲ ብዙሓት ተቓወምቲ ከም እተላዕሉ የመልክት። ንኣብነት ማርቲኒ ኣብ ናይ 1898=1899 ጸብጻባቱ ንሮማ፡ ብዛዕባ ጸጥታዊ ጉዳያት ጽሒፉ። ኣብ1898 ንኣብነት፡ ኣብ ደቂ ተስፋ። ዓበይቲ ወተሃደራዊ ግጥማት ምስቲ መግዛእታዊ ሰራዊትን መዓልታዊ መቑነን
( ኢል ሜኑ ኮቴዲያኖ) ኮይኑ ኣሎ ኢሉ ምምዝጋቡ ናይ`ዚ ሓደ ብቑዕ መረጋገጺ`ዩ

ካብ እምቢነታት ደቂ ተስፋ።
1. ራእሲ ኪዳነማርያም ዓረዛ
2. ደግያት ሰመረ ደምበላስ
3. ከንቲባ ሓየሎም ኣርዓዶም
4. ደግያት መንገሻ ኣስጎዶም
5. ኣዝማች ኣርኣያ ኣስጎዶም
6. ግራ/ች ይግዛው ወንድ ኣፈራሽ
7. ፈተውራራ መሸሻ ሰሎምን
8. ከንቲባ ልጃም ተድሮስ
9. ደግያት ጉርጃ ናብልሽ ቱኹል።
10. በረምበራስ ጊለ
11. ባሻይ በየን ተስፋይ
12. ባሻይ ተስፋ ብርሃነ ኣደጎልቦ ቍሓይን።
13. ጻዓዳ ካሕሳይ ኣደጎልቦ ቍሓይን።
14. ባሻይ ወርቅነህ ቅናፍና።
15. ከንቲባ ዘምላይ ገብረማያም ዓዲ ወሎ ማይ ዲማ።
16. ሞሳዝጊ ስብሃቱ ዓዲ ናህባይ ኢዮም ።
17. ኣዝማች ዑቐባጋቢር
18. ደግይት ካሕሳይ ተፈሪ ኣባ ደርብ
ብመምህር ፈደል መኮነን። Source facrbook excerpts from:History of Eritrean People Community

Source facrbook :History of Eritrean People Community
The Story of Abraham Deboch and Moges Asgedom

Abraha DeboC and the other Eritrean threw grenades at a Gen. Grazianni rally in Addis Ababa in an attempt to kill the Italian military administer of occupied Ethiopia in 1937 and like Zerai Deres, a young Eritrean intellectual who worked as a translator for the Italians stood against Fascism â€" one of the worst forms of tyranny and dictatorship, this was in the heart of Fascist Rome,

What is known is that  Abraha Deboch and  Moges  Asgedom are  both of Eritrean origin. Seeing that the  education of "natives" was strictly limited in the Italian  Colony of Eritrea, they had made their way to Addis  Ababa. There they had enrolled in  Ethiopia's most  modern school, the Tafari Makonnen School, which was  called after Ras Tafari Makonnen, the future Emperor Haile Sellassie, who had founded it in 1925 read more

The Hero Zerai Deres.

On May 21, 1937, in Rome, Italy was celebrating its fourth anniversary of the proclamation of the Italian Empire. The celebratory parade was attended by Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III. Thousands of subjects from Italy’s African colonies marched during the parade. Among them was a young Eritrean man named Zerai Deres. He was carrying the sword to salute the King, the Führer, and Il Duce, at the grandstand. As the parade marched past the Vittorio Emanuele monument, Zerai Deres, a young Eritrean intellectual who worked as a translator for the Italians, reminiscing all the apartheid, racism, oppression of the fascist Italians in Eritrea suddenly became enraged and furious, struck with deep nationalism, he drew his sword and with it he ferociously slew five fascist guards, as well as wounding others, before he was killed on the spot in a hail of gunshots. Other accounts say that he died much later in prison. Regardless, Zerai Deres died in 1937 in Rome, Italy, in public opposition to the rise of fascist power in Italy and her African colonies. His death is considered part of the movement against Italian occupation. The hero Zerai Deres was born in Hazega, Eritrea and is considered a folk hero in both Eritrea and Ethiopia. Zerai Deres was only around the age of 20.
. If we deny those heros like Zerai, Abrham and other who involved in the Ethiopia resistance movement agaist their common enemy the Italian colonisation; how could be acceptable the collaboration between the EPLF and the Ethiopian liberation movement agaist the Derg during the liberation. What make difference for Eritrean people being ruled under the Italian colony from Ethiopian colony[History of Eritrean People Community] . There is other version of this story written by እስጢፋኖስ ገብረሚካኤል ተሞልሶ ኖርወይ 27.11.2014

ታሪኽ ዘርኣይ ደረስ

ኣብ መጀመርያ ወርሒ ሕዳር ናብ ሃገረ ኢጣልያ (ሮማ፡ ሚላኖ) ገይሸ ነይረ። ንእግረ መንገደይ ብዛዕባ ታሪኽ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ይፈልጡ ንዝበሃሉ ሰባት ብኣካል ክሓትት ዕድል ረኺበ። ሰለስተ ተመሳሳሊ ግን ከኣ ብመጠኑ ዝፈላለ ሓበሬታ ድማ ረኺበ። ኣብ ዛራ ጥበባት ብእንግሊዝኛ ቀሪቡ’ኳ እንተ ነበረ፡ ዝበዝሑ ሰባት መታን ከንብቡዎ ናብ ትግርኛ ተርጕመ ብኸምዚ ዝስዕብ አቕርቦ ኣለኹ።

ቀዳማይ ክፋል፡

ዘርኣይ ደረስ፡ ብ19934 ኣብ ማሕበር ኣሕዋት ካፑቺኒ ሰገነይቲ ተመሃራይ ነይሩ። ገለ ካብ መማህርቱ ድማ ደግያት ሰለሙን ተኽለ (ኣቦኡ ንጴጥሮስ ሰለሙን) መምህር ኣብርሃም ሓጐስ (ኣብ ስኮላ ቮቶርዮ ሕብረት ነበር) ኣቶ ገብረሂወት ነባራይ (ኣብ ክፍሊ ትምህርቲ መንግስቲ ኤርትራ ሓላፊ ነበር) ወዘተ ይርከቡዎም። ዘርኣይ ደረስ ካብ ቤትትምህርቲ ማሕበር ኣሃዉ ካፑቺኒ ወጺኡ ኣብ ራማ ከም ተርጓማይ ስራሕ ከም ዝጀመረ ይንገር። በዓልቲቤቱ ኣለማሽ እትብሃል ጓል ሰገነይቲ ኮይና ንግርማይ ፊሊፖ (ወዲፊሊፖ) ጓልሓውቱ እያ። ዘርኣይ ብስደት ኣብ ሃዘጋ ዓብዩ’ምበር ዓዱ ኣብ ሰራየ ዓዲይሓይስ ከም ዝኾነ ይንገር። ብመሰረት ቃል ወዲፊሊፖ፡ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ብገለ ኣጋጣሚ ኣብቲ በዓል ፋሺስትነት ዝካየደሉ ዝነበረ ኣደባባይ ተረኺቡ ነይሩ። ሽዑ ሓደ በዓል ስልጣን ኣንጻር ጸለምቲ ኣፍሪቃውያን ናይ ምቍንጻብ ቃላት ክዛረብ ምስ ሰምዖ ደሙ ፈሊሑ።

ሽዑ በታ ናብ ሓደ ኢጣልያዊ ሓላፊ ከብጽሓ ዝተዋህበቶ ጉራዴ ክድብል ጀሚሩ። ኣብ ከባቢኡ ዝነበሩ ኢጣልያውያን ፈሪሖም ካብኡ ክርሕቁ ከለዉ፡ ገለ ድማ ጽሉል መሲሉዎም። ኣብ መወዳእታ ድማ ተታሒዙ ኣብ ቀይዲ ኣትዩ።

ካልኣይ ክፋል

ብዛዕባ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ብዙሕ ተዘሪቡ እዩ። ኣብ መጽናዕቲ ተደጊፉ ዝተሰነደ ንጹር ታሪኽ ግን ዛጊት ኣይተረኽበን ዘሎ። ኵሉ’ቲ ብዛዕባ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ተረኺቡ ዘሎ ዛንታ ካብ ኣፈታሪክ ዝተረኽበ ጥራይ እዩ። ኩላትና ከም ንግንዘቦ ድማ ኣፈታሪክ ዝበዝሕ ግዜ ናቱ ሃጓፋት ኣለዎ። ምኽንያቱ ነፍስወከፍ ሰብ በብዝጠዕሞ መንገዲ ተጋራጫዊ ዝርዝራት’ዩ ዘቕርብ። ብወገነይ ነቲ ካብ ኣባ ተኸስተብርሃን ገብረመድህን (ኣባ ዶሜኒኮ)፡ ኣብቲ ናይ ንመጀመርታ ግዜ ኣብ ሰገነይቲ ዝተኸፍተ ናይ ዘርኣ ክህነት ቤትትምህርቲ (1934)፡ ንዘርኣይ ደረስ መማህርቱ ዝነበሩ ካህን ዝረኸብኩዎ ሓበሬታ ዝያዳ ሚዛን እህቦ። ንሶም፡ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ካብ ቤክህነት ምስ ወጽአ ከይተረፈ ቀጻሊ ርክብ ከም ዝነበሮም ገሊጾምለይ። ብዙሓት ሰባት ዘርኣይ ደረስ ዓስከር ጥልያን ከም ዝነበረዮም ዝዛረቡ። ኣባ ዶሜኒኮ ከም ዝበሉዎ ግን ዘርኣይ ደረስ ኣብ ዘርኣክህነት ካፑቺኒ ሰገነይቲ ቋንቋ ጥልያን ተማሂሩ ስለ ዝነበረ፡ ናብ ሃገረ ኢጣልያ ከም ኣስተርጓማይ ተላኢኹ። ካብዚ ብምብጋስ እቲ ብኣባ ተውለደ ዝተኻየደ መጽናዕቲ ከምዚ ዝስዕብ ኮይኑ ንረኽቦ።

እቲ ፍጻሜ ብዕለት 21 ግንቦት 1937ኣብ ፒያዛ ደዪ ቺንኵወቼንቶ ኣብ ጥቓ መዓርፎ ባቡርምድሪ ቴርሚኒ፡ ሮማ ኣጋጢሙ። ሽዑ መበል ራብዓይ ዓመት ምእዋጅ ግዝኣት ጥልያን ኣብ ኢትዮጵያ ዝብዓለሉ ዝነበረ መዓልቲ እዩ ነይሩ። እቲ ብወተሃደራዊ ምረሻ ዝተሰነየ በዓል ሞሶሊኒ ተኻፊሉዎ ነይሩ፡ (ሂትለር’ውን ነይሩ ዝብሉ ኣለዉ)። ዘርኣይ ደረስ ኣብ ውሽጢ ካቦቱ፡ ኣብ ናፖሊ ዝነብር ሓለቃኡ ናብ ሮማ ከብጽሓ ዝተዋህበቶ ሴፍ ሒዙ ኣብቲ ቦታ ተረኺቡ ነይሩ። ኣብቲ ኣደባባይ ምስ በጽሐ፡ ሓደ ሓላፊ ዓሌታዊ ጽልኢ ዝትሕዝቶኡ መደረ ከስምዕ ጸኒሑዎ። ኣብ ከምዚ ኵነታት ድማ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ሕርቃኑ ክጻወር ስለ ዘይከኣለ፡ ነታ ሴፍ ኣውጺኡ ብደምፍልሓት ክድብለላ ጀሚሩ። ኣብቲ ዝሰዓበ ዕግርግር ገለ ሰባት ቈሲሎም ዘርኣይ ድማ ብኡንብኡ ተኣሲሩ። ንጽባሒቱ ኣብ ዝተሓትመ ጋዜጣ እቲ ንእሽቶ ፍጻሜ ናብ ሓደ ዓቢ “ደማዊ ቅዝፈት” ህዝቢ ኣጋጢሙ ብዝብል ዜና ተቐዪሩ ተዘርጊሑ። ብኸምዚ ድማ ዘርኣይ ደረስ፡ ንውርደት ኢትዮጵያ ዝተኸላኸለ ጅግና ናብ ዝብል ባሃር ተቐዪሩ። እዚ ታሪኽ’ዚ ካብ ኣባ ዶሜኒኮ ዝተረኽበ ጸብጻብ ኮይኑ፡ እቲ ፍጻሜ ኣዝዩ ንኡስ ጕዳይ ከም ዝነበረ፡ ጋዜጣታት ኢጣልያ ኣጋኒነን ምስ ዘርግሖኦ ድማ ኣብ ኢትዮጵያን ኤርትራን ከም ኣፈታሪክ ተዘርጊሑ ክብሉ ኣረጋጊጾምለይ።

ሳልሳይ ክፋል፡
ሓደ ሽምግል ዝበሉ ብዛዕባ ታሪኽ ብዙሕ ዝፈልጡ ሰብኣይ ድማ ከምዚ ዝስዕብ ታሪኽ የዘንትዉ። ሞሶሊኒ ኣብ ሮማ ኣብ ዝተኻየደ በዓል መደረ እናስምዐ ከሎ፡ ዘርኣይ ኣብቲ በዓል ተረኺቡ ነይሩ። ሽዑ ነቲ ኣብቲ ኣደባባይ ዝነበረ ካብ ኢትዮጵያ ዝተወስደ ሓወልቲ ኣንበሳ ምስ ተዓዘበ፡ ስምዒቱ ተቐስቂሱ ናብቲ ሓወልቲ ብምኻድ ተወጥሖ’ሞ፡ ስላዕ ሒዙ ድማ፡ “ሱ! ኪድ ናብ ዓድኻ፡ እንታይ ትገብር ኣብዚ?” ክብሎ ጀሚሩ። ኣብዚ እዋን’ዚ፡ እቲ ኣብ ኣደባባይ ዝነበረ ህዝቢ ብኣንክሮ ክጥምቶ ከሎ ካራቢኔሪ ጽሉል ክኸውን ኣለዎ ኢሎም ኣብ ትሕቲ ቍጽጽሮም ከውዕሉዎ ክኢሎም። እንተኾነ፡ ናብ ኤርትራ ቅድሚ ምብጋሱ ሕማም ዘለዎ መርፍእ ስለ ዝወግኡዎ ኣብ ሃገሩ ከይበጽሐ ከሎ ዓሪፉ።
ዘርኣይ ናብ ሃገረ ኢጣልያ ከም ዓስከር ዘይኮነ ከም ተርጓማይ ከም ዝኸደ፡ ሓራቕ ካብ ምንባሩ ዝተበገሰ ድማ ዓሌታዊ ዘረባ ምስ ሰምዐ ከም ጸሊም መጠን ኣዝዩ ከም ዝተሰምዖን ጐነጽ ክጥቀም ከም ዝፈተነን ይፍለጥ። እቲ ፍጻሜ ድማ በተን ሽዑ ዝነበራ ጋዜጣታት መሰረተ ዘይነበሮ ዜና ብምትሕልላፍ፡ ዘርኣይ ብዙሓት ሰባት ቀቲሉ ብምባል ነቲ ጕዳይ ዘይመልክዑ ሂበን ስለ ዘቕረቦኦ ድማ ናይቲ ኢትዮጵያውያን ዘርኣይ ደረስ ጅግና ነይሩ ዝብል ኣፈታሪክ ምንጪ ክኸውን ክኢሉ። ኣብ ሓደ ኣማኢት ካራቢኔሪ (ፖሊስ ጥልያን) ኣብ ዝነበሩሉ ኣደባባይ ንሓደ ጸሊም ሰብ ሴፍ ተጠቒሙ ፍርቂ ደርዘን ዝኣኽሉ ዝዓጠቑ ጸዓዱ ክቐትል ኣዝዩ ከቢድ ነገር’ዩ። እቲ ቁምነገር፡ ዘርኣይ ደረስ ጅግና ነይሩዶ ኣይነበረን ዘይኮነ፡ እዚ ዝብሃል ዘሎ ፍጻሜ ብልክዕ ኣጋጢሙ ድዩ ኣየጋጠመን እዩ። ዘርኣይ ደረስ ፍርቂ ደርዘን ሰባት ከም ዝቐተለ ዝገልጽ ስኑድ ነገር ግን ዛጊት ኣይተረኽበን።

እስጢፋኖስ ገብረሚካኤል ተሞልሶ ኖርወይ 27.11.2014

An overview on conscripted Eritreans(Ascari)

Historically conscription has been a burden for generations of Eritreans. Subsequent to the occupation of Eritrea by Italy in 1890, except for the brief period in 1941-1961 when the British Adminstration and the Federal Eritrean governments were in power.

Until 1935, ascari were recruited voluntarily. During this period Eritrean ascari were dispatched along different colonial fronts, namely, Somalia and Libya. Eritrean troops were repeatedly sent to Somalia in 1896, 1908, 1920, 1925, 1926 and 1927 (Vitale 1960: 133), and to Libya from 1911 until the Italian troops were defereated by allies.

After the 1935 the Fascist introduced conscription and restricted the education for the indigenous people from extending beyond  grade four. There was no opportunity for young Eritreans to pursue their education to higher levels. Between 1935-1941 young Eritreans  became victims  of  aparthied. Restrictions on education beyond the 4th grade and segregation within the army caused for hundreds of Eritreans  ascri and elits fled to Ethiopia. This caused for many ascri to join the Ethiopian resistence movement to fight against the Italian who were defeated by the British when it invaded Ethiopia in 1941.

Aregawi Berhe (2003) states that in January 1936, about 400 Eritreans abandoned the invaders of the Shire front alone where the Italian had the upper hand and joined the retreating Ras Imru, Some 600 Eritreans came to joined Ras Desta at Adola on 20 Feb. 1936. Patriotics from Eritrea like Kegnazmach Adom Tesfatsion,Kegnazmach Assefa Bhata, Kegnazmach Seleba Wolde Selassie and many other joined the resistance movement on all the major fronts and hundreds were killed fighting the Italian . This historical facts also refutes the idea entertained by some Eritrean writers that Eritrean were not involved in the Ethiopia resistance movement" Source p. 106 ebook

Generally, during the Italian colonization many young Eritreans were conscripted into the colonial army. Out of a total of 256,000 Italian troops serving in Italian East Africa in 1940, about 182,000 were recruited from Italian Eritrea, Italian Somalia. 135, 000 of those troops were manily indigenous soldiers from Eritrea. According Woldeleul Kelati Dirar( 2012) between 1890-1941, “there were 135, 000 conscripted Eritrean(ascari) who was in Italian service. Many of them were killed in the battlefield in Ethiopia, Libya and Somalia. Example 2, 000 ascar were killed in the Adaw battle in 1896”, in addition between 3,500 and 4,500 ascar were killed during the secon d phase of invasion of Ethiopiaand another 10, 000 Eritrean troops were killed during the resist to the British army 1941.. Bairu(2016, page 26) also said that General Andom Tesfatsion and his son-in law, Colonel Gebrekal were at the forefront of the struggle against the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. Not many Ethiopians are familar with the fact that the return of the Emperor was organized by Lorenzo Tazaz with the support of Eritrean patriiots like Colonel Gebrekal Debesay in Khartoum. The backbone of the liberation army that accompanied the Emperor was composed of Eritrean officers and soldiers.

B/General Andom Tesfazion

The late B/General AndomTesfazion was born in 1892 G.C. at Debri in the district of Anseba, Eritrea. He married Woiz. Sendek Menghistu (after his death she took a vow and became a Nun 'Itay'). He was well beloved and respected by his many Eritrean friends on account of his wisdom and ability. His gallantry in many battles will remain a cherished memory for generations. He was for about 24 years a 'Shumbash' the highest rank for native officers in the Italian Army; he was an excellent marksman, and fairly educated in his generation. (His birthday also marks the period when Italians had firmly established a new colony which they named Eritrea, an old Greek word). In the ordinary circumstances he need not have to join the Italian military; however, his passion for the military was far greater than any administrative posts in the Italian Civil Service. He was approximately 6'4" tall, well-groomed, with a gift for putting people at their ease. While in the Italian Army he diligently studied the fascist arsenal and quickly mastered the use of all modern weaponry. Andom was apprehensive about the colonial oppression the Eritreans were suffering on their own land, at the hands of the fascist Mussolini. He knew the fascist plan and remained vigilant in their preparation to invade further inland to Ethiopia. Andom saw this as opportunity to create a united force to defeat a common enemy. Andom deserted from the Italians, taking with him 500 soldiers and their war equipment after ordered to leave Eritrean dead unburied. Soon other hundreds and thousands of soldiers followed.  (it is also recalled - was a common trait among the fascist sector demeaning Eritreans and often reducing them to a 'bunch-of-flies).

At the time of his dissertation, the Italians under Mussolini invaded Ethiopia burning churches and massacring women and children in violation of international law.  He and his fellow men joined the Ethiopian forces in the Tembien district, in the province of Tigray. At the head of his troops he fought the fascist army very bravely. Later, four days before the terrible Battle of Mai-Chew, he met the Emperor, awarded him the Medal of St. Trinity and a Medal of Honor for war service in recognition of his gallantry. In addition to the medals the Emperor cordially offered him a gift black cape similar to one wore by the Emperor when he addressed the League of Nations in Geneva.At Mai-Chew Andom at the head of his troops fought the good fight, against the enemy, with all his energy and capacity. There, as on every battlefield, his favorite slogan was "Today is my birthday, it is a good day!". .read more


  After the Fascist introduced the Apartheid rule and restricted the education for the indigenous people from extending beyond  grade four, there was no opportunity for young Eritreans to pursue their education to higher levels.    By order of  the Italian government no Eritrean was allowed to be promoted beyond  the 5th elementary class, and after 1936 no one was allowed  to rise beyond the 3rd grade, (Taye, 1991: 43), and only 6 out of the 25  schools for Eritreans  provided basic literacy and vocational training  up to 4th  grade apart from  the Scuola Vittoria Emmanunel in Asmara . The scuola Salvago Ruggio in Keren offered two years courses for children of some privileged Eritreans or balabats. The only choice they had was either to conscript into the colonial army or work in domestic service, road constructions, street, agricultural sector , translation etc. Similarly, the conscripted young Eritreans are recently to be involved in various ways in the PFDJ's economic sector after their completing the 12th grade.   This can be compared with the Italian colonial education system which restricted education for indigenous people to the 4th grade

Lorenzo Taezaz with John H. Spencer

Lorenzo Taezaz was born on 30 June 1900 in the Akele Guzaie province of Eritrea, then an Italian colony. He received his first education in Italian schools in Asmara and Keren and started his career with the Italian colonial administration when he was still very young. Because of his intelligence and hard work, Lorenzo rose to the rank of Secretary to the Governor of Asmara, the highest position that an Eritrean could reach in the colonial administration. In 1924, while on vacation in Aden, he met Ras Teferi Mekonnen, the future Haile Selassie, who was there on an official visit, and who encouraged him to go to Ethiopia. A year later, Lorenzo went to Addis Ababa. Subsequently, Ras Teferi Mekonnen arranged for his education, and along with other Ethiopians, he sent him to France on a government scholarship. Lorenzo spent the next eight years at the University of Montpelier where he completed his studies in Law and Philosophy. [

Lorenzo Taezaz was appointed Ethiopia’s Permanent Delegate to the League of Nations and subsequently took an active role in the struggle against Italian fascism. During the occupation, Lorenzo secretly
entered Ethiopia on several occasions. After Ethiopia’s liberation in1941, he was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs (1941
1943), Minister for Posts, Telephones and Telegrams (1943), President of  the Chamber of Deputies (1943 -1944), Minister to Moscow, USSR (1944-1946), and Delegate to the  Paris Peace Conference (May 1946). A month later, he died in a hospital in Stockholm, Sweden.(3) source

Interview II: John Spencer:Dr. John Spencer knew Lorenzo for some ten years. The following provides what he could recall from
memory: I met Lorenzo on 15 January 1936 in Dessie at the headquarters of His Majesty the Emperor Haile Selassie. I remember everything very well. Even the place where we met was kept dark for fear of Italian air raids. In general, he gave me the impression of an extremely reserved man. Perhaps his inner nature needed privacy and solitude for reflection. He had a quick mind and a sharp tongue. He
impressed me as being an intellectual. He spoke excellent French and English. We collaborated on the war bulletins for some months in Addis Ababa. We met again in London in June 1936 where we worked together. He was very meticulous. It was easy to work out a sentence with
him. He helped draft Haile Selassie’s 1936 address to the League of Nations, translated his speeches and led the Ethiopian delegation to Geneva. In 1938, Haile Selassie wanted to return to Ethiopia to lead the resistance, and so, he sent Lorenzo to Ethiopia to assess the situation and to help organize the Arbegnoch (the patriots). He did a thorough job. As a result, the Emperor decided to move. However, the British strongly objected to the plan, contending that it was premature. But the truth is, since they were negotiating with the Italians over the Mediterranean, they did not want the talks to be prejudicedLorenzo again spent some months inside Ethiopia in 1939 and reorganized the resistance. He did a marvelous job. The Italians left Ethiopia in 1941, and I met Lorenzo in Addis Ababa in 1943. This
time, he was the foreign minister. He performed very well. It was not an easy task to evict the British from Ethiopia. He had aterrible time as they were toying with the idea of establishing a protectorate over Ethiopia. But, nevertheless, he came out with flying colors. The last time I met him was at the Paris Peace Conference in May 1946. A month later, he died in Sweden.(5)source

Belta Ephreme Tewolde Medhin

Interview - Ambassador Ephreim Tewolde Medhin:

Daniel Kinde visited the late Ambassador Ephreim  Tewolde Medhin at his residence in Asmara, he was  ninety years of age. The following is a summary of what I was able to gather from him: Ambassador Ephreim Tewolde Medhin  Lorenzo was my life long friend. Ever since we left Eritrea, we shared adversity and happiness together. There was no future for both of us in Eritrea. In 1925 we escaped to Aden. It should be recalled that Lorenzo had met Ras Teferi Mekonnen in Aden a year earlier and had thus invited him to go to Addis Ababa. I took the boat and waited for him in Djibouti. When we met in Djibouti, both of us were in tears. From there, we took the train and went to Addis Ababa. Ras Teferi Mekonnen asked  us what we wanted to do. Both of us requested him to send us abroad to school, which he did. I went to Beirut. Lorenzo went to France... What we did for Ethiopia during the war, is for history to judge.  We stayed in Europe to help intensify the diplomatic struggle, but Lorenzo was exceptional. He even traveled inside Italian occupied Ethiopia on secret missions. I can assure you that he was a selfless patriot. At a time when an entire generation of educated Ethiopians was simply wiped out by fascism, he was Ethiopia’s eyes and ears. The British only talked to him.(4)source

As a consequence  of the Italian discriminatory policy,  thousands of Eritreans  fled to Ethiopia . Amongst those who fled were students and staff   attached to the missionary  schools.  Among these were Lorenzo Taezaz, General  Mebrahtu  who was the father of Martha Mebrahtu. Martha  was killed  in  the 1972  hijacking in Ethiopia .

 [],  Belta Ephreme  who was the first Ethiopian representative in the UN (Pankhurst, 1953 ),  and Dawit  Ogbazghi who was vice-governor of Addis Ababa .   [ ብግዜ ጣልያን ንኢትዮጵያ ሰጊሮም ኣብ ፈረንሳ ሞንትፔሊየ ዩኒቨርሲቲ ብክብ ዝበለ ናይ ሕጊ ትምህርቲ ድሕሪ ምውሳድ ፡ ኢትዮጵያ ብጣልያን ኣብ ዝተወረረትሉ እዋን ይኹን ድሕሪኡ ንመንግስቲ ኢትዮጵያ ክሳብ ብመዝነት ሚኒስተር ጉዳያት ወጻኢ ዘገልገሉ ኤርትራዊ መበቆል ዝነበሮም ወዲ ዓድ ቐይሕ ብላቴን ጌታ ሎሬንዞ ታእዛዝ (መብራህቱ ታእዛዝ) ብወርሕ ሰነ 1947 ኣብ መበል 47 ዓመቶም ምስ ዓረፉ ፡ ብላታ ተስፋጽዮን ደረስ (ሓዎም ንጅግና ዘርኣይ ደረስ) ኣብ ናይ "ኤርትራ ሰሙናዊ ጋዜጣ" ካብ ዘውጽኡሎም ነዊሕ መልቀስ ገለ ክፋሉ ከምዚ ይብል ።[source Source facebook from Ghirmay Cazanchis

Other Eritreans  moved  to Sudan,  for example the father of General Aman Andom[4] who studied at the American School in Khartoum and   was  the first Head of State of Ethiopia after the revolution of 1974 ; Sheikh Ibrahim Mukhtar who  was a student at the Umdurman Institute and Al-Azhar and became the first Mufti in Eritrea in 1940[5],

Gilamichael Bahta who studied law  in Khartoum with Aman Andom

Gilamichael Bahta
Source facebook from Ghirmay Cazanchis @ Resoum Kidane - Growing up in Addis Ababa, I remember Mr. Gilamichael Bahta. He was one of the best attorneys in the Empire. He had an office near the Ministry of Information (Radio Station) near Abune Petros monument. My dad used to tell me how Emperor Haile Selassie appointed him to be Attorney for Dejazmatch Haile Selassie Gugsa (who was the son in law of the Emperor himself, married to princess zenebework) who defected to the Italians during the Second Italo Abyssinian war. Mr. Gilamichael Bahta argued so brilliantly even the Emperor regretted appointing him as attorney for his son in law, as a result he was forced to give him a lighter sentence of (Gezot in the town of Fitche) instead of the death penalty which was mandatory punishment for treason and desertion during war. Haile Selassie Gugsa lived to see the downfall of Emperor Haile Selassie and was released by the Derg in 1974. Oh boy there were some brilliant Eritreans in those days. How did a nation which produced such high caliber people like Lorenzo Taezaz (a diplomat par excellence), Gilamichael Bahta (a brilliant lawyer) , Aman Andom (a heroic general and head of state) Zeray Deres (another hero who struck on the white colonialists in their very own homeland) Moges Asgodom and Abrham Debotch (the first city guerrillas and anti colonial heroes) etc., we can name many many more, be reduced to such a pitiful state in the hands of the next generation of Ghedli. ወድ ሓዊስ ሓሙኽሽቲ ዝበሃል ሓቂ እዩ :: Would their come a day when we will be able to replicate our heroic fathers again or are we lost for good. Help me to understand this phenomenon my dear friends. Why did we relentlessly work towards our own demise? When we started GHEDLI we also initiated a self destruct sequence on ourselves, our own society, our own history and identity ... what a pity !!! Alexander B. Yitbarek Negash Gebreigziabher

Ghirmay Cazanchis @ Resoum Kidane - Unfortunately I do not have any documents or picture. But let me tell you how he argued the case of Dejazmach Haile Selassie Gugsa as told to me by my father. When Emperor Haile Selassie convinced the British to hand him over Haile Selassie Gubsa who was at that time living in exile in Seychelles, the British gave him one condition and that was "Haile Selassie Gubsa" would get a fair trial and his day at court and would not be punished without due process of law. That is why Emperor Haile Selassie appointed one of the top notch Attorney's at that time i.e. Gilamichael Bahta. During the process of the trial at the high court of Ethiopia (ከፍተኛ ፍርድ ቤት) when asked if his client was guilty ... he went outright and pleaded guilty. The Emperor and all who were following the trial was surprised why Gilamichael Admited guilt without arguing. Because the charge he was admitting guilt for entailed the death penalty. The prosecutor lined up their witnesses (material and human) but Gilamichael never contested any of them, neither did he cross examine the witnesses. So it was straight sailing to the gallows for the prosecutor. When the High Court Judge sentenced Haile Selassie Gubsa to death by hanging, Gilamichael appealed the sentence. Everyone was baffled and even Emperor Haile Selassie and his advisers were all baffled by the actions of Gilamichael. Since he has not presented any counter argument so far it was baffling indeed. The next step was Haile Selassie Gubsa to come in front of the Emperor (ዙፋን ችሎት). Everyone including the king thought it was a slam dunk case. But when the day came for the Emperor to give verdict whether the death penalty by the High court was to be carried, The great advocate Gilamichael stood up and spoke his argument which he was holding so far under his sleeve. He said to the Emperor "On the 5th of May, 1941 when you our victorious emperor entered triumphantly to your capital Addis Ababa, you made a speech and in your speech granted amnesty to all who sided with the Italians including soldiers of the Italian army by saying "እኔንና አገርህን ከድተህ ፥ ከጠላት ጋር የተባበርክ በሙሉ ምሕረት አድርጌልሃለሁ ፤ ስለዚህ ግባ ፤ የበደልከውን ሕዝብህንና አገርህን ካስ ። የጣሊያን ወታደሮች ሆናችሁ የመጣችሁም በሙሉ ፤ ምሕረት አድርጌላችሁዋለሁ ፤ ኢትዮጵያን ለማሰልጠንና ለማነጽ ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ መኖር የምትፈልጉ ከሆነ ምሕረት ተደርጎላችሁዋል ፤ በማለት ለሁሉም ምሕረት ስለሰጡ ፥ ይህም ግለሰብ ምንም እንክዋን ከንጉሳዊ ቤተሰብ ቢሆንም ፤ እንደማንኛውም ኢትዮጵያዊ የምሕረት አዋጁ ይመለከተዋል ። ስለዚህ የንጉስ ቃል እና የእግዚአብሄር ቃል ለሁሉም የማያዳላ ስለሆነ ፥ ይህ ግለሰብም በምሕረት አዋጁ መሰረት ነጻ ሊለቀቅ ይገባዋል " Thus emperor Haile Selassie was caught off guard and grumbled and commuted the sentence to "ግዞት". That argument which Gilamichael saved till the last minute and sprung up at Emperor Haile Selassie was a touch of genius. If he had raised it up earlier during the high court proceedings, they would have found a way to preempt it and circumvent around it or maybe poison Dejazmach Haile Selassie Gubsa while he was in prison. But this decision was made in front of the whole world and it became irreversible. For that Emperor Haile Selassie even though he angrily stormed out of the ዙፋን ችሎት after commuting the sentence nevertheless at a later date commended for the smart way that Gilamichael argued the case of Dejazmach Haile Selassie Gubsa. Negash Gebreigziabher Alexander B. Yitbarek Yoel Alem. (I did not quote Gilamichael word to word, but that was more or else his words at the time).

Aman Mikael Andom (21 June 1924 – 23 November 1974) was the first post-imperial acting Head of State of Ethiopia. He was an Eritrean originally from the village of Tsazega in Hamassien province of Eritrea. He was appointed to this position following the coup d'état that deposed Emperor Haile Selassie on 12 September 1974, and served until his death in a shootout with his former supporters. His official title was Chairman of the Provisional Military Administrative Council (better known as the Derg), and he held the position of Head of State in an acting capacity as the military regime had officially proclaimed Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen as "King-designate" (an act that would later be rescinded by the Derg, and which was never accepted by the Prince as legitimate). As commander of the Third Division, General Aman had been beating back the encroachments of the Somali army on the eastern border with a zeal and success that he was known as the "Desert Lion." However, in 1964 the Emperor dismissed General Aman Andom when he began to attack into Somalia in violation of an order from the Emperor, and Aman afterwards served in the Ethiopian Senate in a "political exile". There is some evidence that indicates he had contacts with the officers of the junta as early as February and March 1974, but by July he was appointed chief of staff to the military junta. Three days after the junta removed the Emperor from his palace to imprisonment at the headquarters of the Fourth Division, this group appointed him their chairman and president of Ethiopia. At the same time, this group of soldiers assumed the name "Provisional Military Administrative Council", better known as the Derg.[1] soure For further information read Remembering unique Eritreans in contemporary history A short biographical sketch Of General Aman Andom Compiled and edited from cyber sources By Emnetu Tesfay

Eritrean Ascari officer

Hamid Idris Awate “Father of the Eritrea Revolution’

In 1935, Hamid Idris Awate was also conscripted by the Italians to serve in the colonial army of the Eritrean Ascaris.  Ghirmay Yeibio in his paper Awate was a trigger happy ordinary outlaw (shifta): A hero of Fascist Benito Mussolini !!! states that the Italians, impressed by Awate’s military performance and loyalty sent him to the Italian African Police training school in Tivoli about 30 km north-east of Rome, for a course in Military Intelligence.  The Italian African Police force (Polizia dell'Africa Italiana or PAI) was a racially mixed organization, made up of Italian agents and native Ascaris. It was located in police headquarters of major cities like Tripoli, Benghazi, Asmara, Addis Ababa, Mogadishu, Gondar, or in small commissariats elsewhere. readmore .

Awate also fought as an ascari in the Battle of Keren and participated to the Italian guerrilla in Eritrea against the British and Ethiopians in World War II with the cavalrymen of Ali Gabre [source ]. In 1941 Eritrea was liberated from  Italian colonial rule when it was defeated by the British army at the battle of Keren[video] and other fronts[video]. The British also liberated the surviving prisoners of Nakura in 1941, many of whom had died of hunger as the war was reaching its end. Hamid Idris Awate had preferred to serve as an ascari for the Italian colonizer instead of launching an armed struggle against the Italian colonial rule to end the suffering of the Eritrean people from illitarcy, impresonment, conscrption etc.

Photo of Hamid Idris Awate as Eritrean Ascari officer, when he was deputy chief of Kassala (annexed to Italian Eritrea in 1940)

Prisoners of Nakura in alphabetical numbers, book of  Kedamot Jeganu Eritrea

On the 54th year of commemoration of the beginning of the armed struggle which was led by Hamid Idris Awate, I would like to raises the following questions  

Eritrean Ascari after World War II


Many Eritrean Ascari fought for the independence of Eritrea after WWII. The most famous was Hamid Idris Awate, nicknamed the Father of Eritrea because he fired the first shots of the Eritrean War of Independence against the Ethiopians.[13]

After the official end of the Italian Empire in 1947, the Italian government has dedicated some efforts to maintain organizations related to the Ascari in Italy and Eritrea.

In 1950 the Italian authorities created a pension fund for nearly 140,000 Eritrean Ascari who had served in the Italian colonial Army. Even if the amount was minimal (the equivalent of $100 yearly), this was paid in the Italian Embassy of Asmara and was of some value in the underdeveloped economy of Eritrea after World War II.

In 1993 1,100 Ascari were still living in Eritrea, but by 2006 only 260 were known. One surviving ascari, Beraki Ghebreslasie, lives in Rome[ source Eritrean Ascari Wikipedia]

To conclude, the root of the Eritrany people's suffering goes back over many decades to the pre Italian colonial period. Then as now there was a luck of commitiment by leaders who claimed to be working to end the agony of the people. History shows that they were obsessed with power rather than a desire to serve their people s. During the Italian colonial period when many Eritrean patriots imprisoned in Nakura Island by the Italians like Hamid Idris Awate serving the Fascist[video] instead of resisting the Italian occupation. In the 1940s Ras Kidanemariam Ghebremeskel who had resisted the Italian colonial rule but instead contining the struggle for the Independence became Honorary President of the Unionist Party ( against the independence of Eritrea).

1940s and 1950s Mohammed Idris Adem (the founder of the ELF in 1960) who was member of the Moslem Leagu ( the  Pro-independencee) seceded from the Moslem League and joined  the unionist camp ( against the independence of Eritrea). In 1955 he became president of Eritrean parliament in 1955 but in 1957 was forced by the chief executive to resign. He replaced by Melake Selam Dimetros G/Mariam.and went to exile with Ibrahim Sultan in 1959. 1960 Mohammed Idris Adem formed the ELF without any clear programme and in September 1961 Idris Awate who fought against British army at the Battle of Keren, launched an armed struggle against the Ethiopia occupation.

During the liberation struggle the ELF was defeated by EPLF with collabotation of the TPLF. After the liberation former leaders of the ELF formed who are currently within the oppostion groups allied with the TPLF to remove the PFDJ leadership.The main obstacle for removing the PFDJ leadership is due to the leaders of the oppostion groups engaging in power struggle and splitting for the sake of their personal interest. This proves these leaders have even more contempt for their own people their own people than the PFDJ leaders . Dr Salah I. Jimi in his articl EDA Split: Implications for National Unity and Democracy also states that ten years should have been enough for the ELF factions to reinvent themselves and be a credible and an effective opposition group. Today Eritreans would then not be subjected to [1]PFDJ extreme abuses emanating ‘absolute power’ and its attendant arrogance.

Since 1991 the oppostion has had more opportunity to resolve their differences and to exploit the rift which occurred between the G15 and Issayas in 2001. But these opposition leaders prioritized their organisational interests rather than liberate the Eritrean people from the ruthless PFDJ. Such factionalism is not new. Wolde Giorgis (1989: 93) recalls that the ELF and EPLF had the power to take Asmara, but at the last minute their mutual hatred proved stronger than their hatred of the Ethiopian army. He adds that, they lost their opportunity because they could not come to an agreement. Subsequently, the number of martyrs among civilians and fighters is estimated to have reached more than a hundred thousands. According Stefanos (2000) and White (2005) the number of people killed during the 30 years of liberation war was estimated around 250, 000.

If the oppostion leaders are genuinely committed to their people they should united and work together to end the suffering of the younger Eritrean who have become victime of human trafficking and pershing in the medetrian sea. Those opposition leaders( EDA, EPDP etc..) have until now proved to be no better than Isaias Afwerki. They differ only in not having the power to act

መን እሞ ይንገረሎም…!!!
R.I.P Colonel Belay Haileab
ሕሉፍ ዛንታን ዘይእመን ውዕሎን ሌተና ኮሎኔል በላይ ሓይልኣብ እንታይ ወሓጦ?
who was the Black Lion resistance group commander during the second Italo Abyssinian war and whose monument still stands at Holeta Genet Military Academy. He and his group conducted military campaigns in Western Ethiopia, in the vicinity of Lekemte, Wollega. Colonel Belay Haileab was later captured and killed by Italians.13
መቸስ ጉዕዞ ታሪኽ እዚ ዝሓለፈ 100 ዓመታት፡ ኤርትራዊ እንታይ ዘይገበረ፡ ስምርትን ስልጥንትን ኤርትራ ንምቛም ምስ መን ዘይመከተ!
ብ1869 ቀሺ ጁሴፔ ሳፔቶ፡ መሬት ደንካልያ ምስ ረገጸ፡ ህዝቢ ገማግም ዞባ ደቡባዊ ቀይሕ ባሕሪ ኣማኒ ምስልምና ምዃኑ ምስ ኣረጋገጸ፡ ሳፔቶ! ኣማኒ ምስልምና ኮይኑ’ዩ ምስ ሰበስልጣን ደርደር ረሓይታ ሰላሕታዊ ርክቡ ዝጀመረ። እዚ ይኹን እምበር እቲ ተቐባሊ ጋሻ ዝኾነ ህዝቢ ዓፈር፡ ኩነታት እቲ ሰራም ቀሺ ከስተብህል ድሕሪ ምጅማሩ፡ ኣሻቡ’ዩ ጠላይን ክሃድን ዝጀመረ።
ብወርሒ ግንቦት 1876 ካኣ 25 ጠላይን ኣብ በይሉል ቀተለ። እዚ ሓበሬታ እዚ ኻኣ፡ ናብ ሰበስልጣን ጣልያን በጽሐ እሞ፡ ምድሪ ኤርትራ ብቐሊሉ ዘይርገጽ ኣሿኽ ምዃኑ ተገረጋገጸ። በዚ ኢሉ በቲ ግና ጣልያን ቀስ ብቐስን ብፍሑኽታን መላእ ኤርትራ ተቐጻጸረ እሞ፡ ልሙጽ ግዝኣቱ ንምርግጋጽ ነቶም ህዝቢ ኤርትራ ኵውድቡን ከንቅሑን ይኽእሉ እዮም እተባህሉ ማእለያ ዘይብሎም ዓበይቲ ዓዲ፡ መራሕቲ ሃይማኖት፡ ኣነባበርቲ ዓድን ዝኣመሰሉ ሓርበኛታት ሓደ ድሕሪ ሓደ ብምልቃም ገሊኦም ናብ ደሴት ናኹራ ንሕልፈት ክሕየሩ እንከሎዉ፡ ገለ እምቢታ ዘርኣዩ እውን፡ ኣብ መንገዲ ብጥይት ተቐቲሎምን ኣብ ኣጉናድ ተሰቒሎም ድማ ንሕልፈት ሓሊፎምን እዮም።
እዚ ተርእዮ እዚ፡ ኤርትራውያን መንእሰያት 20ታትን 30ታትን ኣብ ውሽጢ መሬት ኤርትራ ብምዃን ምስ ጠላይን መኪትቶም ናጽነቶም ክዓትሩ ዝካኣል ከም ዘይኮነ ዘዘኻኸረ ደወል ነበረ። በብጉጅለን ብውልቅን ድማ መረብ ተሳጊሮም መኸትኦም ክቕጽሉ ተራእዩ።
ሓደ ካብዚኦም እቲ ድሕሪ ስዕረት ጣልያን ማዕርግ ሌተና ኮሎኔል እተሸለመ ካብ ኣቡኡ ሓይልኣብ መሸሽን ወላዲቱ ሓዳስ ንግሳን ኣብ ኣፈልባ-ዞባ ደቡብ እተወልደ በላይ ሓይልኣብ ነበረ።
ሌተና ኮሎኔል በላይ ሓይልኣብ፡ ገና መንእሰይ ወዲ 21 ዓመታት እንከሎ፡ ከም ኣዛዚ ናይቲ ብጥቁር ኣምበሳ (ጸሊም ኣንበሳ) ዝፍለጥ ኣብ “ሆለታ ገነት ኣካዳሚ” Holeta Genet Military Academy ዝሰልጠነ ኣሃዱ ብምዃን ብዙሕ ዕዮታት ዝዓየየ መንእሰይ ነበረ። ኣብ 1936 ጣልያን መላእ ኢትዮጵያን ሶማልያን ተቖጻጺሩ ግዝኣት ኢጣልያዊት ምብራቕ ኣፍሪቃ ምስ ኣወጀ ድማ፡ በላይ ከም ኣዛዚ ናይቲ ብጥቁር ኣምበሳ ዝጽዋዕ ፍሉይ ኣሃዱ ብምዃንን ውሑዳት ሰራዊቱ ብምኽታትን ድማ፡ ናብ ወለጋ “ለቀምቴ” ናብ ዝነበረ መዕርፎ ነፈርቲ ጣልያን ብለይቲ ብምእታው 3 ነፈርቲ ውግእ መግዛእቲ ጣልያን ኣቃጸለ።
እቲ ወረ እቲ ብኡን ብኡን ናብ ሓለፍቲ ጠላይን በጽሐ እሞ፡ በላይ ንምህዳን ድማ ላዕልን ታሕን ኮነ። እዚ ይኹን እምበር፡ እቲ ብቆራጽነቱን ትብዓቱን ዝልለ ዝነበረ በላይ ሓይልኣብ፡ ኣብቲ ብዓርቢ19 ለካቲት 1937 ብኤርትራውያን መንእሰያት ኣብራሃ ደቦጭ ከምኡ’ውን መጎስ ኣስጎዶም ኣብ ከተማ ኣዲስ ኣበባ እተኻየደ ፍንጀራ ቦምብ እውን ተሳተፈ እሞ፡ ስእሉ ድማ ተረኽበ። ድሕሪ ነዊሕ ድልያ ድማ፡ በላይ ኣብ ትሕቲ ቁጽጽር ሓይልታት ጣልያን ኣተወ።
ተታሒዙ ናብ ቤት ጽሕፈት ኣመሓዳሪ ኢጣልያዊት ምብራቕ ኣፍሪቃ (ኤርትራ፡ ኢትዮጵያን ሶማልያን) ጀነራል ሮዶልፎ ግራስያኒ ድማ ቀረበን እሞ፡ እቲ ጀነራል ካኣ፡ ኣብ ነፋሪት ናብ ሰማያት ወለጋ በነያ ክበርር እሞ፡ ካብታ ነፋሪት ድማ ካብ ሰማይ ተደፊኡ ናብ መሬት ተደርብዩ ክመውት ፈረዶ። እቲ ኣሬሜናዊ ተግባራት ፋሺሽት ድማ ተተግበረ። መንእሰይ በላይ ኣብ መበል 24 ዓመት ዕድሚኡ እንከሎ ጥራሕ ካኣ በጃ ህዝቢ ሓለፈ።
ኤርትራዊ ሓርበኛ በላይ ሓይልኣብ (በዓል ኣፈልባ) ድማ ክቡር ሞት ሞተ። ንጉስ ሃይለስላሴ ጣልያን ብእንግሊዝ ተሳዒሩ ካብ ስደት ናብ ሃገሮም ምስ ተመልሱ ድማ፡ ነቶም ኣንጻር መግዛእቲ ዝሓለፉ ኩሎም ኤርትራውያን እተፈላለየ ማዕርግ ክህቡ ወሰኑ እሞ፡ ንበላይ ድማ፡ ስለቲ ክቡር ኣበርክቱኡ ማዕርግ (ሌተና ኮሎኔል) ብምዕዳል ነቲ ኣብ ሕጂ ብስም ጎደና ሰማእታት ዝጽዋዕ ኣብ ከባቢ (ሲነማ ሮማ) ዝርከብ ጎደና እውን፡ - ጎደና ሌተና ኮሎኔል በላይ ሓይልኣብ ሰመዩዎ።
መን እሞ ይንገረሎም……!!!


  • ehrea



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