Prisoners death records  

 

 

 

 

 

 

W.Haile
Mysterious death of Ibrahim Afa
Mysterious death of Abraham Tewelde

Liquidation in the ELF
index sitemap advanced
2017-12-14

 

SHIFTA in the 1940s

 

 

 

 

SHIFTA in the 1940s

SHIFTA

The Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a Shifta system [Part 1]

Tekeste Negash in his book Eritrea and Ethiopia The Federal Experience briefly mentioned that there were three type of shifta .

HAMID IdRIS AWATE: According to the book of Tekeste Negash "The most notorious among these shifta was Hamid Idris Awate of Beni Amer origin. Idris Awate began his career in early 1942 and by 1948 his army may have numbered about 50. His main activity was to raid the Kunama and Baria people. In the middle of 1950, he participated in the clan feud between the Beni Amer and the adjoining districts of Hamassien, namely Liben and Anseba. Idris Awate was one of the three shifta leaders about whom the British were most concerned. In 1949 the BMA offered a considerable [Read more page 62]

The rewards mentioned below will be paid for information leading to the arrest of the following shifta or to the person producing their bodies, dead or alive. [Excrept from The Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a Shifta system]

Name of wanted man
residence or tribe
amount of rewards
crime for which wanted
Hamed Idris Awate
Antore
£300
Already notified
Weldegebriel Mossazghi
Berakit Abbai
£200
Already notified
Berhe Mossazghi
Berakit Abbai
£200
Already notified
Hagos Temnewo
Debri Adi Tsadek
£150
Already notified
Assreskhenge Embaye
Areza
£100
Already notified
Oqbankiel Ijigu
Shimanugus Tahtai
£50
Already notified
Ghebre Tesfazien
Deda
£100
Murder
Debbassai Abraha
Habela
£25
Murder
Sebhatu Demsas
Habela
£20
Murder
Tekle Asfha
Keranakudo
£20
Murder
Kidane Demsas
Habela
£20
Murder
Teklehaimanot  Sereke
Kerenakudo
£20
Murder
Berhe Habtezghi
Mekerka (Anseba)
£30
Murder
Weldesellassie Adal
Liban (Serae)
£30
Murder
Abraha Zemariam
Zigib
£25
Murder
Grazmac Ilfai Asfha
Keranakudo
£35
Murder
Megisteab Seum
Adi Qontsi
£30
Murder
Bereketeab Andemikiel
Deda
£20
Murder
Tarake Werede
Tigrai (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Andemariam Zere
Debri (Liban)
£20
Murder
Berhe Lijam
Deki-Dashim
£20
Murder
Medhin Kahssay
Irob (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Abraha Suba
Tigrai (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Girmazion (who was with Haile Abay)
Tigrai (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Mebrahtu Teklenkiel
Haben
£20
Murder
Gheremedhin Kefela
Adi Ewur
£20
Murder
Omer Aluru
{Asa Esan???}
£20
Murder
Khalifa Omer
{Sukuru Are???}
£20
Murder
{???} Maleh
Tigrai (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Issak Ali
Tigrai
£20
Murder
Ali Idris
Hanzer
£20
Murder
Ali Hudera
Denkal
£20
Murder
Khalifa Ali
Hazu
£20
Murder
Ali Omer
Tigrai (Ethiopia)
£20
Murder
Girmay Hailu
Mog’o
£20
Murder
Amare Embaye
Areza
£20
Murder
Idris {Achem???}
Barya tribe
£20
Murder
Gale anewri
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Shababi  Tana
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Osman Longi
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Abakair Gale
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Agaje Haitin
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Gale Ambi
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
{Achti???} Buzu
Kunama tribe
£20
Murder
Tekle Gilagaber
Deki-Shehai
£20
Murder
Habte Gilagaber
Deki-Shehai
£20
Murder
Kidane Habtue
Deki- Shehai
£20
Murder
Kesete Tesfaldet
Deki-Shehai
£20
Murder
Fessehaye  Fessehazion
Deki-Dashim
£20
Murder
Melake Beyan
Dek-Dashim
£20
Murder
Kelete Gherezghiher
Deki-Dashim
£20
Murder
During the liberation struggle Eritrean people not only became the victims of the Ethiopian government but were also killed by the ELF and EPLF. The crimes against the Kunama people which is committed by the PFDJ is not new but has history go back before Idris Awate started the armed struggle. In the 1960s the Kunamas people became the first victim of the ELF leaders. According to Yosef 2009, many houses with their inhabitants inside; men, women and children indiscriminately killed; entire fertile areas abandoned (later to be settled mainly by the Tigrignas), their cattle plundered and sold in Kessela; etc. Here is how the VK/ KAM team of the baden-kunama.com website puts it “To a very considerable number of Kunama, who had not only known Hamid Idris Awate personally, but they had also had to abandon their land and villages set ablaze by him and their entire cattle raided and sold in the market places of Kassala (Sudan), the news of this same Hamid Idris Awate, been chosen as the leader of a national liberation movement was not only very surprising but profoundly shocking. As a continuation of this atrocity, in the early sixties (1960s) and late seventies (1970s), started to conduct retaliatory activities against the Kunama people, burning Kunama villages, even with their inhabitants inside their huts. VKP/KAM May 18, 2009) [About the background history of Hamid Idris Awate? October 30, 2012)

Was Awate a shifta? If yes, was Awate involved in criminal activities during his banditry life? Excrept from the Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a  Shifta system – part 2 and final.

Merhawi Kunfu in his article the Eritrean Revolution: Born of a Shifta father, produced a  Shifta system – part 2 and fina wrote

"As we can see from the public notice presented in part one, the answer is absolute yes that Awate was a shifta. Nobody can refute the fact that Awate was a shifta because the documents presented contain hard facts and evidence that prove so. I challenge anybody who denies this reality. It is well documented and well known that awate was a notorious shifta leader in the 1940s- 1950s. Even his family members and his is own community do not deny this. Among the Kunama, the whole kunama population know Awate as a shifta and criminal who killed and looted them. Anyone who wishes to know the truth about Awate can get the real information by interviewing the Kunama elders who witnessed Awate’s crimes with their own eyes. Awate was not only a shifta but he was a great a shifta leader. This means there were many armed men under his command who follow his commands and his instructions. Regarding the question of Awate’s involvement in crimes, the document provides us the answer in unequivocal manner that Awate had committed crimes -  no doubt about that. The document I have presented in part one however, does not provide us details of the nature of crimes Awate had committed because according to the public notice, Awate’s crimes were ‘already notified’ in prior notices to this notice. The public notice states that the crimes had been committed against the Eritrean people emphasizing that ‘the normal life of the people of Eritrea is continually being disrupted and {???} by the activities of the shifta bands. Merhawi concluded his article..."Actually, we can conclude that the Eritrean revolution was launched or planted by a shifta criminal and produced a shifta criminal system. This means we are harvesting what we planted. Read More

Ghirmay Yeibi in his article " Half a century of misery and with no end in sight which was posted to asmariino.com on 31 May 2012 also wrote, in response to that half a century ago Eritrea started an armed struggle led by Hamid Idris Awate, who was a local outlaw “shifta”, engaged in cattle raiding and rustling.  Awate was a criminal and is well remembered by his victims the Kunamas (indigenous people living in south Western Eritrea) for committing atrocious crimes against them and the indiscriminate killing of women and children including infants and burning and razing of Kunama villages.  He was pardoned by the British Administration in Eritrea and given complete amnesty for his past crimes and allowed to return to his hometown, until upon request from the ELF (Eritrean Liberation Front) he turned his band of outlaws into the armed wing of the ELF. [Read more]

Furthermore Ghirmay Yeibio in his article Awate was a trigger happy ordinary outlaw (shifta): A hero of Fascist Benito Mussolini !!! Monday, 15 October 2012 wrote "Who was Hamid Idris Awate?  What was his history? Hamid Idris Awate was a simple outlaw (shifta).  An ordinary soldier entrusted with accomplishing a political goal charted out for him by ELF leadership in the Sudan.  He never interfered nor tried to influence the political decision of the front, nor did he have the analyzing capacity of what he was doing. He was politically ignorant and was glad to do what he was trained to do his whole life and which he knew best how to do i.e. killing and causing mayhem.

He was a trigger happy fascist loyalist who worked against the interests of the Eritrean people in particular and colonized Africans in General, who continued to fight the British forces, alongside Amedeo Guillet, to bring back fascist Italian rule to Eritrea even after Mussolini’s army had surrendered in East Africa to the allied forces.

He was a fascist loyalist who conducted a guerrilla war for 5 whole years for “a king, country and a people whom he never saw or knew”.  He was loyal Carabinieri who diligently worked to keep Eritreans under the yoke of Italian colonialism.  As a right hand man of the Italian administration he approved and enforced the racist and oppressive policy of Italy which confiscated around half of the land of Eritrea under the principles of state land “Terreno Demaniale”, particularly around western lowlands of Eritrea during his tenure as administrator.  He wanted to reinstate the Italian Fascist rule that dehumanized Eritreans using apartheid and segregation and continued to fight to bring back that system to East Africa for five whole years, until the end of the Second World War. read more

 

Iድርስ ሓምድ ዓዋተ!!
1. ኣብ 1961 ክንደይ Eድመ ነይሩዎ?
2. ኣብ ብረታዊ ቃልሲ ኤርትራ Eንታይ ጸንቢሩዎ?
3. ኣብ ዝነበራ ካብ 1946 ክሳE 1961 ምንቅስቓሳት Eንታይ ተራ ነይሩዎ?
4. ንዝንገረሉ Eጥቂ ቃልሲ ናጽነት ብኸመይ ኣበጊሱዎ? Read more

መግለጺ ባሕቲ ሓደ መስከረም 2012ዝደልዩ ደቂ ዓዋተ ዘይደልዩ ከA ደቂ ትሽዓተ ብሄራት [ቤት ጽሕፈት ዜናን ሓበሬታን ዲምሓኩኤ መስከረም 01 2012]

.."ናይ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ሃገራውነት (nationalism) ግን ኹሉ ኤርትራዊ ዝስማማዓሉ ዛEባ ኣይኮነን፡፡ ሽፍታ ስለ ዝነበረ ሃገራዊ ክብሃል ኣይግብAን ማለት ከA ቅኑE ኣይኮነን፡፡ ምኽንያቱ ሽፍታ ወይ ከA ጭውዝበለ Eሉልን ጸረ ህዝቢ ጸኒሑ ተቀይሩ ንሃገር ዝጠቅም ስራሕ Eንተፈጺሙ ንቅበሎ ጸጋ ስለዝኾነ፡፡ ንሓደ ሃገራዊ Eንተ ብፍላጥ ወይ ከA ንሕነ ህዝቢታት ሃገር ንዝጨፍጨፈ ገበነኛ ከም ሃገራዊ ምቅባልን ምስ መዓልቲ ናጽነት ብምትEስሳር ነቶም ግዳያት ክስEስU ምግባር ግንናይ ገበን ገበን Eዩ፡፡ ሓምድ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ኣብ ልEሊ ብሄር ኩናማ ዘብጽሖ ህልቂት ከቢድIዩ፡፡ ሓቂ ዶ ሓሶት ንምርግጋጹ’ውን መጽናEትን ግዜን ክወሃብ ድኣሉ ዝግባE Eምበር ንሓደ ሸነኽ ንምኽሳብ ኣብዚ ናይ ገበን ታሪኽ ብምንጥልጣል ሓባራዊ ሃገራዊ ምርድዳE ኣብዘይበጸሕናዮ ጉዳይ ከም ናይ ኩሉ ኤርትራዊ ውራይ ጌርካ ምውሳድ Aብ ልEሊ መሰልዜጋታት ምEንዳር Iዩ።ዲሞክራሲያዊ ምንቅስቓስ ሓርነት ኩናማ ኤርትራ (ዲምሓኩኤ) ሓምድ Eድሪስ ዓዋተ AብልEሊ ብሄር ኩናማ ዘብጽሖ ህልቂት ካብ ዘይምፍላጥ ወይ ዓቕሚ ብምስኣን Aይኮነን ክሳብሕጂ ትም መሪጹ ዝጸንሐን፡ ሎሚ ከቃልሖ ዝመረጸውን ካብ ወትሩ ፉሉይ ዓቕሚ ስለዝረኸበን ስለዘዋህለለን ኣይኮነን፡፡ Eንታይ ድኣ ንቅሓት ሕብረተሰብ ኩናማን ሰዓብቱንAባላቱን Aብ ግምት ብምEታውን Aብ ሕሉፍ ታሪኽ ተንጠልጢሉ ነዚ ጉዳይ ቀዳማይAጀንዳ ቃልሲ ክገብር ስለዘይመረጸ ጥራይ Eዩ፡፡ ሓቂ ተቐቢሩ ስለዘይተርፍን ቅኑE ታሪኽመሰረት ቅኑE ሃገርን ህዝብን ምዃኑ ብምEማን ኣብ ጉዳይ ሃገራዊ ጅግንነታዊ ታሪኽ ሓምድ
Eድሪስ ዓዋተ ብስርዓት ህግደፍ ዝተጠጅA ተንኮልን ብዓቢ ድምጺ ክቃላሕ ዝጸንሐድራማታትን ቃልE ንምውጻE ሕልናዊ ግዴታና ምዃኑ ኣሕዋት ኤርትራውያን ክርድUናበዓል ሙሉE ተስፋ Iና
።" Read more

 

Excrept from Mr Kornelios Adolay Osman is only the chairman of the “Democtatic Movement for the Liberation of the Kunama” (People), and not the “Kunama Organisation“ itself

......"Concerning the person, the history and the activities of “Hamid Idris Awate”, in the Kunama land and upon the Kunama people, everyone knows, including the “awate.com”, too, (carrying his name), the team conducting it, and many leaders and members of the above enumerated organisations, that, “no one knows”, Hamid Idris Awate, “like and better than the Kunama people of the Kunama Tika region”, where he grew-up and was even a fellow-co-herder of some Kunama individuals, still living among us and testifying about the sad experiences, they had to make, after Hamid Idris Awate had suddenly changed his behaviour, became, a “villain”, a “murderer”, a “thief”, and started killing the Kunama (male), infants, men, women, young, old, and raided countless of their livestock.

This is “history”, and a very sad history for the Kunama people who, are still recounting their family-members, relatives, friends and fellow-Kunama ethnic-members, murdered by and fallen victims of that cruel man.
 
The  teams of the two Kunama web-sites, speaking in the name of their fellow-Kunama, have often reminded the “awate.com’s”, team, to stop bringing in connection, the past history of the Kunama people with the name and history of Hamid Idris Awate, so as not to recall sad memories, in the minds of the Kunama people, and rekindle emotions, violent thoughts of retaliation and of hatred.
For us and for our Kunama people, the lives of our people are much more precious than the “Eritrean Struggle”,( retained to have been started under the leadership of Hamid Idris Awate) and the “Eritrean Independence” itself, put together, of which we are yet to see its worth.
No Kunama is against, if and whenever those organisations, their leaders, members, supporters and other fellow-Eritreans, who and which, though do very well know, the true background history of Hamid Idris Awate and of his criminal activities upon the Kunama people, are yet excited, exhilarated and “taken-high-up”, simply by his “shooting of the first bullet” to “start the Eritrean Revolution”, do stand-up, and are standing-up to “honour” Hamid Idris Awate as their hero and emblem of the Eritrean revolution, but the Kunama people are not to be expected or even forced into forgetting his criminal activities upon them, and start honouring him as their “national hero”.
This is humanly and morally inconceivable and irreconcilable expectation.
For the Kunama people, Hamid Idris Awate “was, is” and “remains”, one of the killers and  co-killers of the Kunama ethnic-members.
 
As said, many leaders of those opposition organisations, their members and many Eritrean individuals, do know, the background history and the criminal activities of Hamid Idris Awate, supposedly, up to the year, to the month, the day and the hour of his “first bullet shooting”, but also the sufferings the Kunama people, specifically, the Kunama inhabitants of the Kunama Tika region, had to undergo, caused by the homicidal activities and sprays of killings of Hamid Idris Awate.
The stand, some of us Kunama are now taking, as regard to the present diatribe, “Kunama Peopleversus Hamid Idris Awate,” is not in defence of Mr. Kornelios Adolay Osman, but of our Kunama people and of their past sufferings, because, though differing only in quantity of their Kunama victims, Hamid Idris Awate and Mr. Kornelios Adolay Osman are both enemies of the Kunama people, for, both are equally killers of the Kunama people.
 
We are now asking:
a).- where were:
1.                The members of the “Gulf Centre for Media Services”,
2.                The “Eritrean Solidarity Front”,
3.                “Meskerem.net”,
“Awate.com” and the many groups and individuals, today coming out in
         unanimity, to call for the expulsion of the Kunama people’s organisation from the opposition, when the Kunama people were being slaughtered, like animals, by Hamid Idris Awate, in their own native and ancestral land?
 
b).- Where were the above organisations and their leaders, when, the Jebha
unit, led by the individuals, like “Hamid Dinai”, and others, operating in the Kunama territory, in the “1960s/70s”, and inheriting the very legacy of Hamid Idris Awate, had exchanged, the Eritrean struggle for “hatred, revenge” and for an all-out “vendetta”, against the Kunama people, and were carrying out all sorts of criminalities,, setting the Kunama villages ablaze, burning some Kunama villagers alive, and inside their own houses; among them, the late inhabitant of the Kunama village of Karkasha, “Amos, burnt alive” together with “seven”, (7), of his own family members, in “1967”?
We have “eye-witnesses”, having live memories of those criminalities and condemning the “Jebha” itself.
 
c).- Where were the above organisations and their leaders, when the
        so-called “leaders” of the Eritrean independence struggle were condoning the systematic eliminations of many prominent Kunama, both, within and outside of their own units, simply for being “Kunama”?
We have “witnesses” from both sides, recriminating those killings.
 
Starting in the “1990s”, the then newly enthroned power, and reigning up-to to-day, the “People Front for Democracy and Justice”, the PFDJ’s regime, started resettling, in the Kunama land, many non-Kunama refugees, returning to Eritrea and, today, it is resettling and letting to resettle and settle, in the Kunama native land, itself and every Eritrean in search of land; and, in order to silence many Kunama voices raising for complaints, it carried out, and it is still carrying out many systematically conducted killings of the Kunama people, slowly reaching the thresholds of “ethnic-cleansing” levels:
d) why  then:
1).-The “Gulf Centre for Media Services”,
2).- The “Eritrean Solidarity Front”,
3).- “Meskerem.net”,
4).- Awate.com” and the many others, today and loudly raising their voices
        in condemnation of the Kunama People’s organisation, for the simple statements, of a single Kunama individual, who has spoken his own mind and, supposedly “insulted” their “national hero”, Hamid Idris Awate, have never come out unanimously, to condemn, such injustices of the ruling regime, in the first place,?
Can such organisations and their leaders, distinguish between “justice” and legitimate “complaints?” Read more

Others Shifta in the 1940s

ASRESSEHEI EMBAYE: - (Notorious Shifta) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in highland perfected the systematic terrorization, killing and mutilating the defenceless Jeberti of SERAE, Saho of HAZOMO and Kunama of TOKOMBIA area. ASRESSEHEI assisted by the Ras Menghesha family he become a prominent UNIONIST SHIFTA. In the late 1940 his band murdered the B. M. A. - appointed district chief, Azmach BERHE GHEBREKIDAN of Guhcia’. After the annexation of Eritrea with Ethiopia he was promoted and was ordered to the head of the Judges in the Eritrean High Court. He survived several attempting on his life by the E. L. F

BEIENE MOSAZGHI: - (Notorious Shifta) he had made the MUSLIM POPULATION a target for looting and destruction especially in highland perfected the systematic terrorization of both Italians and Muslims (SAHO AND JEBERTI of Akele Guzai). On the roadblock no. 12, a few kilometres from Saganeiti and Addi Khayeh road, the police faced him; BEIENE and his brother FESSAHAIE MOSAZGHI were killed in the battle. The fact that one of the policemen who killed them was an Italian added fire to anti-Italian SHIFTA activities. The MOSAZGHI defiance had now become a personal vendetta primarily directed against Italians, and was to further terrorize the Italian community in Eritrea. Defenceless Italian were killed and mutilated in the Mai-Habar area, and their concession farms were looted or burned. Before long, however, SHIFTA were attacking inside Asmara. Two another of the MOSAZGHI brothers with their band increased their vendetta activities. In the second week of April 1949, a restaurant frequented by Italians in the suburb of Asmara was bombed and burned to the ground, while in the same evening another band killed an Italian at his home in front of his wife and children. The MOSAZGHI bros. Looted and destroyed many Jeberti property in Asmara

TESFAI HABTE: - (Notorious Shifta) Brother, of EMBAYE HABTE then the leading official of the Keren branch of the Unionist Party later became a cabinet minister in the Ethiopian government.
( source Jelal Yasin Abera)

GHEBRY TESFAZIEN: No. 001 –  Eritrea Police Force – 1951:    Extracts from a discussion between Supt. of Police L.M. Braine and shifta leader Ghebry Tesfazien

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SHIFTA provocation, assisted by intimidation by the Keshi DIMITROS’ Coptic Church, was scoring predictable results. People in the villages in rural Eritrea who harboured anti–Unionist sentiment were intimidated and forced to stay away from the Un Commission. In several instances where organized groups of peasants tried to go see the Commission, armed SHIFTA erected roadblocks and prevented the petitioners from reaching their destination. These subversive acts were supplemented by the hegemonic influence of the Abyssinian Great Tradition. All those Abyssinian Eritrean who opposed Ethiopia were called anti-Christians. The Head of the Eritrean Coptic Church and its ruling hierarchy, thereby using religion as a political weapon, The UN Commission concluded that the “clergy movement, led by KESHI DIMITROS and BLATTA DEMOZ, was conducting an intermittent negative campaign against the minority of Coptic Church leaders who were opposed to the Unionist cause. By 1950-1951 the Abuna was rarely consulted by the Ethiopian government regarding the future of Eritrea. Furthermore, the Ethiopian Crown was cultivating the support of KESHI DIMITROS of Serae (…’ AB KIDMEKHA ZELO ISHOKH KEITZREKHA DEMBE AIBTZHIN IYU!). His Son Mr. Yoftahe Dimetros served as Ethiopian Ambassador in Israel in the Derg Government, now he is working as General Secretary of the Holy Synod of the Eritrean Orthodox Church (EOC)
   ( source Jelal Yasin Abera)
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Victm of Sfifta

Abdel Kadir Kebire,  who was first vice president (1941-46) of the Mahaber Feqri Hager(MFH) and President of the ML-Asmara  branch, was assassinated on March 30, 1949 on the eve of his departure to attend the meeting  in Lake Success, New York, as well attacked on Dedjazmach Hassan Ali of the Moslem League by Unionists (Spencer, 1984:197). This was because of the of UP intolerance. [find more information about Shifta in the 1940s]
Abdulkadir Kebire believed that only through education  and unity can a people control their own destiny.
Abdulkader Kebire  who was a businessman funded many charitable projects including one for the establishment of a technical school in Mai Dshto in Akria, Asmara (Gabeel Team, 2005). Sheikh Abdulkader Kebire(1902 - 1949 )  who became a controversy by calling for the education of women, something, which was a taboo in those days. He believed that only by education and unity can a people be masters of their own destiny. These messages were his vehicle to the world of politics.


Osman Abdulrahim song , Kelem.ቀለምyoutube

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